American History and Genealogy Project

Albany City NY to Allen, County, KY

Albany city, N. Y., the capital of the state, is situated on the Hudson r., 145 miles, by the course of the river, above the city of New York, in 42° 39' 3" n. lat., and 73° 32' w. lon., and 3° 12' e. long, from W. 164 w. by n. Boston. 230 s. Montreal, 370 W. The population, in 1810, was 9,356; in 1820, 12,630; in 1830, 24,238; in 1840, 33,721. Employed in agriculture 144; manufactures and trades 1,621; navigating the ocean 8; do. rivers and canals 106; in the learned professions 237. The ground on which Albany is built has a flat alluvial tract along the margin of the river, from 15 to 100 rods wide, back of which it rises abruptly, and in half a mile in the direction of State-street, attains an elevation of 153 feet; and in 1 mile of 220 feet, above the level of the river. Beyond this, the surface is level. The older parts of the city were not laid out with much regularity, and some of the streets are narrow, but the parts more recently laid out, have spacious and regular streets. State-street, one of the early streets, from the meeting of Court and Market streets, is from 150 to 170 feet wide, and has a steep ascent, at the head of which the capitol, which fronts it, has a commanding position. Many of the private, and more especially the public buildings of Albany, have fine situations, and overlook an extensive and a beautiful prospect. The capitol is a large stone edifice 115 feet long and 90 feet broad, fronting e. on a fine square, at the head of State-street. It contains spacious and richly furnished apartments for the accommodation of the Senate and Assembly, and various rooms for other public purposes. The City Hall is on the e. side of the same square, facing w., and is a large marble building, with a gilded dome. The State Hall, for the public offices, is a corresponding building on the same side of the same square, and is a splendid edifice. The Albany Academy is a fine building of freestone, and has a park in front of it, adjoining the public square; and both squares are (con't)

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surrounded by an iron fence, and in fact, constitute one large and beautiful public ground, divided by a street, laid out with walks, and ornamented with trees. The other public buildings are a Medical College, a Female Academy, the Albany Exchange, a large building of granite at the foot of State-street, and the county jail. The Albany Academy, in its course of instruction, approaches to a college, and has 400 students, and eminent instructors. The Albany Female Academy has obtained an extensive and a deserved celebrity, and has from 300 to 350 pupils. The Albany library contains 9,000 volumes. The Young Men's Association, established for mutual improvement, occupies rooms in the exchange building, and has 1,500 members. It has a fine reading room, liberally furnished, has a library of 3,200 volumes, and supports, through the winter season, an able course of lectures. The Albany Orphan Asylum is situated one mile w. of the city hall, and generally supports 80 or 90 male and female children. The poorhouse, in the s. w. part of the city, has a number of large buildings, and a farm of 150 acres, cultivated by its inmates. St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum is a Roman Catholic institution, for females only, and has about 40 inmates, under the charge of the Sisters of Charity. Albany has about 100 streets and alleys built on, 11 public squares, 3 markets, 10 public school buildings, containing also dwellings for the teachers, and 11 engine houses, all built substantially of brick. The city contains 30 places of worship, of which the Presbyterians have 4, the Associate Reformed 1, the Dutch Reformed 3, the Methodists 4, the African Methodist 1, the Episcopalians 3, the Baptists 2, the colored Baptists 1, the Lutherans 2, the Universalists 1, and the Roman Catholics 2. There are 1 Independent church, 1 Mission church, 1 Bethel church, 1 Friends' meeting-house, and 2 Jewish synagogues. The old state hall on the s. side of State-street, is now converted into a museum, for the reception of the geological cabinet, collected by the state geologists in their surveys. The Albany Institute is a respectable scientific association, which has a valuable library and cabinet. The situation of Albany for trade and commerce, is commanding. Being on one of the finest rivers in the United States, and having a rich back country, its natural advantages are great; but these advantages have been vastly increased by the Erie and the Champlain canals, which give it a ready access to a widely extended country to the n. and w.; and its connection to Boston by railroad, will add to these advantages. The Mohawk and Hudson railroad terminates here, and connects with other lines to the west. The Erie canal, comprising also the Champlain canal, enters the city in its n. part, and flows into a spacious basin, formed by a pier built in the river, a mile and a quarter long, which produces a safe harbor, not only for boats, but also for vessels, to defend them against the ice in the spring floods. These advantages have been improved. There are in the city 53 commission houses, 35 importers, 137 wholesale houses, 440 retail stores, and 612 grocery and provision stores. There are 8 banks, with an aggregate cap. of $2,751,000; 4 insurance companies, with a total cap. of $700,000. The manufactures of Albany are not less flourishing than its commerce. There are 15 manufactories of carriages, some of them very extensive; 20 of hats and caps, producing articles to the amount of $900,000 annually; 4 of tobacco, 2 of morocco leather, 5 rope-walks, 15 of soap and candles, 5 of musical instruments, 2 of combs, 20 of copper, tin, and sheet iron; and a great many others. There are 2 type foundries, 1 stereotype, 2 manufactories of oil cloth, 8 of stoves, 4 of carpets, &c. There are 10 furnaces, 3 steam sawing and planing machines, 4 plane manufactories, 1 manufactory ofphilosophical instruments, and 1 of coach lace. There are 3 malting houses and 9 breweries. According to the late census there were in Albany in 1840, 47 commission houses engaged in foreign trade, with a cap. of $650,000; 976 retail drygoods and other stores, with a cap. of $975,000. The total cap. employed in manufactures was $1,735,500. In 1840, 20 steamboats and 51 towboats regularly plied between Albany and New York, and the intermediate places on the river. A large number of sloops also navigate the river. It is estimated that over 1,000 persons arrive at, and depart from Albany, daily, by its various lines of communication. Albany was founded by the Dutch in 1623, and by them called "Beaver Wyck," and afterward "Williamstadt." It capitulated to the English in 1664, who gave it its present name, in honor of the Duke of York and Albany, its proprietor. It was incorporated in 1686.

Albany, t., Berks co., Pa. The surface is hilly; soil gravelly and poor. It has 1 Presbyterian and 1 Lutheran church, and several forges. Drained by Maiden cr. and its tributaries. It has 1 tannery, 6 grist m., 6 saw m., 1 oil m. Cap. in manufac. $3,000. Pop. 1,057.

Albany, p-v., capital of Clinton co., Ky., 8 n. Tenn. line, 126 Frankfort, 620 W. Situated on Spring cr., a tributary of the Cumberland r.

Albany, p-v., Henry co., Tenn., 106 w. Nashville, 792 W.

Albany, p-v., Whitesides co., Ill., 177 n. by w. Springfield, 873 W. Situated on the e. side of the Mississippi r.

Albany, p-v., Baker co., Ga., 128 s. s. w. Milledgeville, 785 W. Situated w. side of Flint r.

Albemarle Sound, a large inlet from the sea, in the n. e. part of N. Carolina. It extends 60 ms. from e. to w., and is from 4 to 15 ms. wide. It receives the Chowan, Roanoke, and several smaller rs. It communicates with Pamlico sound and the ocean, by several narrow inlets; and with Chesapeake Bay by a canal through the Dismal Swamp.

Albemarle, County, Va., one of the central counties of the state. It has the Blue Ridge on the n. w., and James r. on the s., and contains an area of 700 sq. ms. Its streams consist chiefly of the head waters of the Rivanna r. The surface of this county is diversified, and its soil various. Capital, Charlottesville. There were in 1840, neat cattle 14,819, sheep 20,512, swine 34,606; wheat 326,986 bush, produced, rye 117,369, Ind. corn 711,516, oats 216,382, potatoes 28,539, tobacco 2,409,598 pounds; 74 stores, cap. $302,300; 1 cotton fac. 1,500 sp., 13 tanneries, 4 distilleries, 15 flouring m., 51 grist m., 46 saw m., 2 printing offices, 2 weekly newspapers, 2 periodicals. Cap. in manufac. $260,885. 1 college, 247 students, 18 acad. 400 students, 21 com. sch. 386 scholars. Pop. 1830, 22,618; 1840, whites 10,512, slaves 13,809; total, 22,924.

Albemarle, p-o., Stanley co., N. C, 146 Raleigh, 383 W.

Albertson's, p-o., Duplin co., N. C, 79 Raleigh, 309 W.

Albion, p-t., Kennebec co., Me., 26 n. e. Augusta, 44 s. w. Bangor, 621 W. It has 4 stores, cap. $2,400; 1 tannery, 1 grist m., 4 saw m.; (con't)

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9 sch. 692 scholars. Cap. in manufac. $7,250. Pop. 1,624. Pop. 1,624.

Albion, p-v., and capital Orleans co., N. Y., 250 w. by n. Albany, 392 W. Situated in Barre t., and on the Erie canal. It contains a court house, jail, clerk's office, 2 banks, 3 churches — 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian — an academy, a female seminary, 18 stores, 7 warehouses, and 1 flouring m., 200 dwellings, and about 1,400 inhabitants.

Albion, t., Oswego co., N. Y., 25 e. Oswego, 147 w. n. w. Albany. The surface is undulating, and the soil good. Watered by Salmon r. on the n., and Salmon cr. on the s. It contains 3 stores, cap. $3,900; 1 tannery, 1 grist m., 18 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $15,200. It has 16 sch. 561 scholars. Pop. 1,503.

Albion, t., Calhoun co., Mich. The Kalamazoo r. passes through it. It has 4 stores, cap. $29,000; 2 distilleries, 2 flouring m., 2 grist m., 4 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $42,630. 8 sch. 201 scholars. Pop. 932.

Albion, p-v., Albion t., Calhoun co., Mich., 92 Detroit, 564 W. It is on the right bank of Kalamazoo r., and contains 80 dwellings, 1 saw m., 1 flouring m., and 3 stores.

Albion, p-v., Fairfield dist., S. C, 34 Columbia, 475 W.

Albion p-o., Wayne co., O., 112 Columbus, 363 W.

Albion C. H., p-v., Edwards co., HI., 165 Springfield, 40 s. w. Vincennes, 731 W. Established in 1819. Settled chiefly by English emigrants. The situation is high and healthy. It contains 3 stores, a flouring m. moved by oxen, and 40 or 50 families. It has a brick court house, 44 feet square, and 2 stories high.

Albrights, p-o., Orange co., N. C, 63 Raleigh, 297 W. b

Alburg, p-t., and port of entry, Grand Isle co., Vt., 83 Montpelier, 557 W. It lies in the n. w. corner of the state, and is a triangular body of land projecting from Canada into Lake Champlain, by which it is surrounded, excepting on the Canada side. The surface is low and level, and the soil is good, and well timbered. It has 4 stores, cap. $7,900; 1 tannery, 1 grist m., 1 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $2,150. Pop. 1,344.

Alburg Springs, p-v., Alburg t., Grand Isle co., Vt., 87 Montpelier, 561 W. Here is a mineral spring of considerable efficacy in scrofulous and other cases.

Alden, p-t., Erie co., N. Y., 22 e. Buffalo, 270 Albany, 380 W. The village has 30 dwellings, and 1 Presbyterian church, and contains 1 store, cap. $1,000; 1 fulling m., 1 woollen fac, 1 tannery, 3 grist m., 10 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $11,500. 14 sch. 667 scholars. Pop. 1,984.

Alder Branch, p-o., Bradley co., Tenn., 168 Nashville, 593 W.

Alder Creek, p-o., Booneville t., Oneida co., N. Y., 107 w. n. w. Albany, 412 W.

Aldie, p-o., Loudon co., Va., 139 n. Richmond, 42 W.

Aledon, p-t., Ingham co., Mich., 92 w. by n. Detroit, 578 W. Pop. 221.

Aleppo, t., Greene co., Pa. Pop. 650. Pop. 1,624. Alexander, p-t., Washington co., Me., 25 n. by w. Machias, 202 e. n. e. Augusta, 788 W. It has 1 grist m., 1 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $1,420. 6 sch. 237 scholars. Pop. 513.

Alexander, County, Ill., situated in the s. part of the state, contains 375 sq. ms. It has the Ohio r. on its s. e., and the Mississippi r. on its s. w. border. The soil is fertile, and one third, at least, alluvion. The s. part is liable to be overflowed. Watered by Cash r. and branches, Sextons and Clear creeks. Organized in 1819. The soil is generally thin, and the surface undulating. Capital, Unity. There were in 1810, neat cattle 2,952, sheep 998, swine 10,339; wheat 3,947 bushels produced, bid. corn 84,020, oats 11,620, potatoes 10.112; 13 stores, cap. $29,040; 1 tannery, 1 distillery. 10 grist m., 9 shw m. Cap. in manufac. $102,730. 8 sch. 190 scholars. Pop. 3,313.

Alexander, p-t., Genesee co., N Y., 8 s. w. Batavia, 258 w. by n. Albany, 382 W. It is crossed by the Tonawanda creek; and has 4 stores, cap. $31,000; 4 fulling in., 1 woollen fac, 2 tanneries, 2 grist m., 4 saw m. Cap. in manufac. 134300. 1 acad. 200 students, 14 com. sch. 516 scholars. Pop. 2,242.

Alexander, p-t., Athens co., O., 78 Columbus, 345 W. It is one of the two townships granted to the Ohio University. It has 5 stores, cap. $5,000; 3 grist m., 12 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $3,200. 5 sch. 130 scholars. Pop. 1,451.

Alexandersville, p-v., Montgomery co., O., 7 below Dayton, on the Miami canal, 74 w. s. w. Columbus, 469 W.

Alexandria, p-t., Grafton co., N. H., 34 n. w. Concord, 515 W. It has 2,000 acres of rich interval land on its streams, while other parts are rough. It contains 2 stores, cap. $5,000; 1 wollen fac, 1 fulling m., 1 grist m., 5 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $8,185. 14 sch. 394 scholars. Pop.1,284.

Alexandria, p-t., Jefferson co., N. Y., 20 n. Watertown, 195 n. w. Albany, 447 W. To this town belong a part of the Thousand islands in the St. Lawrence r. opposite to it. The shore of the St. Lawrence is here high and picturesque. The military road from Plattsburg to Sacketts Harbor leads centrally through the town. It has several good mill streams. It contains 6 stores, cap. $19,200; 1 grist m., 7 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $14,505. 6 sch. 135 scholars. Pop. 3,475.

Alexandria, p-b., Porter t., Huntingdon co., Pa., 98 w. Hamsburg, 157 W. It contains 2 churches, 70 dwellings, 7 stores, cap. $26,400; 2 tanneries, 1 brewery, 1 grist m. Cap. in manufac. $17,100. Pop. 575.

Alexandria t., Hunterdon co., N. J., 12 n. e. Flemington. It contains 33,000 acres, and has several post villages; 10 stores, cap. $66,000; 1 fulling m., 3 tanneries, 5 distilleries, 1 ropewalk, 6 flouring m., 4 grist m., 10 saw m., 3 oil m. Cap. in manufac. $139,955. 9 sch. 420 scholars. Pop. 3,420.

Alexandria, p-o., St. Albans t., Licking co., O., 40 e. by n. Columbus, 379 W.

Alexandria city, seaport and capital of Alexandria co., D. C, 43 s. s. w. Baltimore, 115 n. Richmond, 7 W. 38° 48' n. lat. 0° 3' w. lon. W. It is finely situated on the w. side of the Potomac, which has a depth of water here sufficient for vessels of the largest class. The population in 1800 was 4,196; in 1810, 7,227; in 1820, 8,218; in 1830, 8,263; in 1840, 8,459. The city is considerably elevated, ascending gradually from the r; the streets cross each other at right angles. The public buildings are a court house, and 10 churches — 2 Presbyterian, 2 Episcopal, 2 Methodist, 1 Baptist, 1 Friends, 1 colored Methodist, and 1 Roman Catholic. The city has considerable shipping, and exports wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco, to a considerable amount. The tonnage of the port in 1840, was 14,470. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal extends to this place, and may be expected to add to its prosperity. It has 2 banks, with an aggregate cap. of $1,000,000, and 1 fire, and 1 marine insurance co. It is governed by a mayor and a common council of 16 members. It has 8 acad. 296 students, 10 sch. 224 scholars.

Alexandria, county, comprises all that part of the District of Columbia which lies w. of the and formerly belonged to Virginia. The soil is generally thin, and uneven. It contains about 36 sq. m. A bridge, of over a mile in length, connects it with Washington city. The laws of Virginia are in force here, unless superseded by the special enactments of the general government. There were in 1840, neat cattle 989, sheep 263, swine 1,190; wheat 4,334 bushels produced, rye 2,798, Ind. corn 18,800, oats 9,091, potatoes 6,283; 156 stores, cap. $1,528,450 , 5 tanneries, 1 pottery, 1 ropewalk, 3 grist m., 1 daily newspaper. Cap. in manufac. $474,400. Pop. 1830, 9,608; 1840, whites 6,731, slaves 1,374, free colored 1,862; total, 9,967.

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Alexandria, p-v., Campbell co., Ky., 85 Frankfort, 506 W.

Alexandria, p-v., De Kalb co., Tenn.,15 s. Carthage, 50 e. Nashville, 640 W. It is on Lickneus cr. 15 ms. Cumberland r. It has 2 stores, 2 churches— 1 Campbellite, and 1 Methodist— and about 250 inhabitants.

Alexandria, p-o., Madison co., In., 48 N. N. E. Indianapolis, 556 W.

Alexandria, p-o., Clark co., Mo.

Alexandria, p-o., Benton co., Ala., 129 n. e. Tuscaloosa, 727 W.

Alexandria, p-v., and capital of Rapides Parish, La., 291 n. w. New Orleans, 1,210 W. It is situated on Red r., a little below the lower rapids. The houses are on a single street, along the river. It has a court house, jail, and printing office.

Alexandriana, p-v., Mecklenburg co., N. C, 161 s. w. by w. Raleigh, 398 W.

Alford, p-t., Berkshire co., Mass., 14 s. by w. Lenox, 24 e. Hudson, N. Y., 14 Boston, 361 W. Incorporated in 1773. It is watered by Green r. and branches, which enter the Housatonic. It has 1 store, cap. $2,500; 1 fulling m., 1 tannery, 1 grist m., 2 saw m.; 4 sch. 144 scholars. Pop. 481.

Alfordsville, p-v., Robeson co., N. C, 107 s. s. w. Raleigh, 395 W.

Alfred, p-o., Meigs co., O., 101 s. e. by s. Columbus, 328 W.

Alfred, p-t., York co., Me., one of the shire towns of the co., 24 n. by w. York, 35 s. w. Portland, 78 s. w. Augusta, 517 W. Incorporated 1808. There is a society of Shakers in the town. The soil is good, and well watered. It has 7 stores, cap. $14,500; 2 tanneries, 3 grist m., 3 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $4,352. 1 acad. 35 students, 10 sch. 397 scholars. Pop. 1,408.

Alfred, p-t., Alleghany co., N. Y., 12 s. E. Angelica, 249 w. s. w. Albany, 321 W. The N. York and Erie railroad is to pass through it. It is watered by several mill streams. It has 4 stores, cap. $20,000; 1 fulling m.,2 tanneries, 1 grist m., 3 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $2,400. Pop. 1,630.

Algansi, t., Branch co., Mich., contains 1 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $1,000. 3 sch. 45 scholars. Pop. 424.

Allamuchy, p-o., Warren co., N. J., 66 n. by w. Trenton, 227 W.

Allatoona, p-o., Cass co., Ga., 130 n. w. Milledgeville, 659 W.

Allegan, County, Mich., lies on the west border of the state, on Lake Michigan, was organized in 1835, and contains 840 sq. ms. It is watered by the Kalamazoo, Black, and Rabbit rs. The surface is undulating. On the lake shore the soil is sandy, on the rivers a rich alluvion; and in other parts a mixture of clay and sand. Lumber is extensively manufactured. Chief town, Allegan There were 1840, neat cattle 1,511, sheep 107, swine 2.266; wheat 13,815 bush, produced, Ind, corn 14,735, oats 15,424, potatoes 23,792, sugar 118,845 pounds, lumber valued at $97,700; 1 furnace, 1 tannery, 2 flouring m., 1 grist m., 15 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $213,375. 1 acad. 15 students, 12 sch. 305 scholars. Pop. 1,783.

Allegan, p-t., and capital of Allegan co., Mich., is situated on both sides of the Kalamazoo r., connected by 2 bridges, 161 w. by N. Detroit, 626 W. It is at the head of navigation, and has good water power. It has an elevated location, on a dry, sandy soil, and commands a fine prospect. It has 1 furnace, 1 flouring m., 4 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $89,100. 1 acad. 15 students, 3 sch. 61 scholars. Pop. 634.

Alleghany, r., the principal head branch of the Ohio r., which see.

Alleghany or Appallachian Mountains, constitute a range of great length, and from 50 to 200 ms. in breadth, and reach from the Cattskill mountains in the state of New York, their most elevated part, to Georgia. The course of this great chain is nearly parallel with the Atlantic, and about from 50 to 130 ms. distant from it; and it consists of a number of parallel ridges, denominated the Blue Ridge, North mountain, Jackson's mountain, Laurel mountain, Cumberland mountain, &c. These mountains, for the most part, are not over 2,500 feet high, and they divide the waters which flow into the Atlantic on the E., from those which flow into the Mississippi and the lakes to the n. and w. These ridges rarely present naked summits, but are generally wooded to the top; and between the ridges are often valleys of fertile land, though the country among them is generally rocky and rough. They consist of granite, gneiss, mica and clay slate, primitive limestone, &c.

Allegany, County, N. Y., is one of the southern tier of counties, being bounded s. by Pennsylvania. It was taken from Genesee co. in 1806. It is watered by Genesee r., which flows nearly through the middle of it, from s. to n., and a number of smaller streams or creeks, which flow into it on each side. The valley of the Genesee contains much excellent land, and the country on each side rises, and in the E. and w. part of the co. consists of an elevated table land, from 1,500 to 2,500 feet above tide water in the Hudson r. The area of the county is about 1,185 sq. ms. The Genesee Valley canal passes through the county, from s. to N., and commences at Olean, in Cattaraugus co., on the Alleghany r., and will form a line of communication from the Erie canal at Rochester to Pittsburg. The New York and Erie railroad will also pass through this county by a circuitous course, from e. to w. The soil of this county is generally fertile, but better adapted to grazing than to grain. Among the minerals arc limestone and bog iron ore. The growth of timber is large, consisting of oak, maple, beech, basswood, ash, elm, and white and yellow pine, and hemlock, the last 3 being found chiefly in the s. part. Capital, Angelica. There were in 1840, neat cattle 45,864, sheep 129,655, swine 30,043; wheat 232,471 bush, produced, buckwheat 20,068, Ind. corn 60,137, potatoes 583,945, oats 354,566 13 stores, cap. $376,400; 24 fulling m., 4 woollen fee, 31 tanneries, 2 distilleries, 3 flouring m., 36 grist m., 204 saw m., 1 oil m., 6 furnaces, 3 printing offices, 2 weekly papers. Cap. in manufac. $403,370. Pop. in 1830, 26,218; in 1840, 40,975.

Alleghany, County, Pa. This important county lies on the w. border of Pennsylvania, and contains the Monongahela and Alleghany rs., where they unite to form the Ohio, which runs 14 ms. in this county. Pittsburg, its capital, situated at the confluence of these rivers, is one of the most important places of the west. The country, though hilly, is fertile, and the natural growth is dense and large. The agriculture, manufactures and commerce of the county are in a very flourishing state. There were in 1840, neat cattle 21,512, sheep 56,459, swine 34,635; wheat 461,167 bush. produced, rye 58,045, buckwheat 29,894, Ind. corn 289,797, potatoes 409,2 10, oats 770,378. It contains 7 commer. houses, in for. tr., and 32 com. $1,241,110; 551 stores, cap. $4,389,290; 5 fulling m., 5 woolen fac, 5 cotton fac, 17,270 so., 32 tanneries, 14 distilleries, 6 breweries, 17 glass houses, 1 pottery, 37 flouring m., 52 grist m., 81 saw m., 2 oil m., 28 furnaces, 18 printing offices, 4 daily and 11 weekly newspapers, 10 periodicals. Cap. in manufac. $3,554,562. It has 2 colleges, 81 students, 21 acad. 1,186 students, 202 sch. 10,281 scholars. Pop. in 1830, 40,506; in 1840, 81,235.

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Alleghany, county, Md., lies in the extreme western part of the state. The main branch of the Alleghany mountains passes through it, and its surface is extremely rough and broken, though much of the soil is fertile. It forms the dividing ridge whence the Youghiogeny proceeds n. w. into the Monongahela; and the head branch of the Potomac proceeds s. w. toward the Atlantic. It is by this route that the Chesapeake and Ohio canal and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad are to proceed. The great national road, constructed by the general government, at a great expense, and leading into the western states, commences at Cumberland, the capital of this co. There were in 1840, neat cattle 10,031, sheep 13,763, swine 11,490; wheat 86,648 bush, produced, Ind. corn 121,747, potatoes 87,193, oats 213,581; 63 stores, cap. $211,400; 2 fulling m., 2 woollen fac, 8 tanneries, 8 distilleries, 11 flouring m., 18 grist m., 44 saw m., 1 oil m., 1 furnace, 2 printing offices, 3 weekly newspapers. Cap. in manufac. $99,410. Pop. in 1830, 10,609; in 1840, 15,690, of which 812 were slaves.

Alleghany County, Va., lies in the central part of the state, among the Alleghany mountains, and is drained by the head waters of James r. It contains an area of 521 sq. ms. Soil is rich on the streams, and on the "rich patch mountain" is highly productive, and densely populated. On the other mountains, the land is poor, and covered with pines. A stream issuing from a spring, after a short, tranquil course, has a fall of 180 feet, and proceeds from cataract to cataract, until its entrance into Jackson's r. The passage of Jackson's r. through Waite's mountain, is regarded as a curiosity. Its mountainous situation, and great elevation, give it a cooler temperature than might be expected from its latitude. Capital, Covington. There were in 1840, neat cattle 2,686, sheep 3,647, swine 4,578; wheat 25,449 bush, produced, rye 9,142, Ind. corn 70,828, oats 58,860, potatoes 9,372, tobacco 42,500 pounds; 5 stores, cap. $2,400; 4 tanneries, 5 distilleries, 1 pottery, 4 flouring m., 20 grist m., 21 saw m., 1 furnace. Cap. in manufac. $28,890. 5 sch. 88 scholars. Pop. 1830, 2,816; 1840, whites 2,142, slaves 547, free col'd 60; total, 2,749.

Alleghany, t, Armstrong co., Pa. The surface is hilly; soil, generally lean. Drained by Kiskiminitas and Crooked crs. It contains salt works, and has 5 stores, cap. $9,600; 1 tannery, 1 distillery, 3 grist m., 3 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $8,300. Pop. 1,839.

Alleghany, t, Huntingdon co., Pa., surface mountainous; soil red shale, and fertile in the valleys. Drained principally by Beaverdam, branch of the Susquehanna r. It has 6 stores, cap. $42,000; 2 woollen fac, 1 furnace, 2 tanneries, 3 grist m., 20 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $ 14,223. Pop. 2,225.

Alleghany, t., Venango co., Pa. The surface is hilly; soil, gravel. Drained by Stewart's and Hickory crs. It has 3 stores, cap. $4,000; 2 tanneries, 1 pottery, 3 grist m., 1 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $8,300. 4 sch. 108 scholars. Pop. 804.

Alleghany, t., Somerset co., Pa. The surface is very hilly; soil, reddish gravel. Drained by Willis's find Rush crs. It has 1 store, cap. $500, 1 tannery, 1 distillery, 3 grist m., 8 saw in. Cap. in manufac $2,910. Pop. 633.

Alleghany, t., Potter co., Pa. Pop. 238.

Alleghany, t., Westmoreland co., Pa., on the E. bank of the Alleghany r., and has Kiskiminitas r. on the n. e. It has 5 stores, cap. $3,400; 6 flouring m., 5 saw m. Cap. in manulac. $24,000. 11 sch. 343 scholars. Pop. 2,641.

Alleghany, t., (and Loretto v.) Cambria co., Pa. It has 3 stores, cap. $6,100; 1 tannery, 1 pottery, 2 grist m., 8 saw m. Cap. in manufac $3,877. 7 sch. 256 scholars. Pop. 1,217.

Alleghany, city, Ross t., Alleghany co., Pa., (see Pittsburg.) It has 58 stores, cap. $83,400; 9 lumber yards, 3 cotton fac, 14,270 sp., 2 tanneries, 1 furnace, 1 brewery, 1 ropewalk. Cap. in manufac. $726,640. Pop. 10,089

Allemance, p-v., Guilford co , N. C, 69 w. n. w.Raleigh, 303 W.

Allen, t., Noble co., In. 1 sch. 18 scholars. Pop. 179.

Allen, p-t., Cumberland co., Pa., 18 w. s. w. Harrisburg, 102 W. It has 6 stores, cap. $26,500; 2 fulling m. Cap. in manufac $3, 175. Pop. 2, 122.

Allen, t., Dark co., O. Pop. 194.

Allen, t., Northampton co., Pa. It has 2 Lutheran churches, and several mills, and contains 11 stores, cap. $47,000; 2 tanneries, 3 distilleries, 6 flouring m., 4 grist m., 2 saw m., 1 oil m. Cap. in manufac. $72,000. 1 acad. 50 students, 7 sen. 275 scholars. Pop. 2,547.

Allen, County, O., in the n. w. part of the state. It occupies the height of land between Lake Erie and the Ohio r. Watered chiefly by Auglaize r. The county contains 554 sq. ms., and the soil is fertile. Capital, Lima. There were in 1840, neat cattle 9,085, sheep 3,723, swine 18,869; wheat 60,521 bush, produced, rye 3,204, Ind. corn 168,545, oats 53,272, potatoes 63,119, sugar 106,744 pounds; 19 stores, cap. 20,500; 4 tanneries, 2 distilleries, 7 grist m., 6 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $19,565. 19 sch. 418 scholars. Pop. 9,079.

Allen, County, In., in the n. e. part of the state. It was organized in 1824, and contains 650 sq. ms. The surface is level, the soil is fertile, and the country is well timbered. Some wet prairies abound with grass, which forms a kind of winter pasture for cattle, and a partial substitute for hay. St. Joseph's r. from the n. and St. Mary's from the s. unite at Fort Wayne, and form the Maumee r., which proceeds eastwardly to Lake Erie. The Wabash and Erie canal, connecting Lake Erie at Toledo, with the Ohio at Evansville, passes through this county. Capital, Fort Wayne. There were in 1840, neat cattle 3,654, sheep 924, swine 8,524; wheat 34,819 bush, produced, Ind. corn 84,275, potatoes 34,056, sugar 24,865 pounds; 5 for. com. houses, cap. $16,000; 36 stores, cap. $180,200; 1 tannery, 1 distillery, 1 brewery, 1 pottery, 3 flouring m., 2 grist m., 14 saw m., 1 printing office, 1 weekly newspaper. Cap. in manufac. $67,300. 32 sch. 920 scholars. Pop. 5,942.

Allen, County, on the s. border of Ky., has a level surface, and a soil moderately good. The Big Barren r., a branch of Green r., runs on its eastern and northern border, by the branches of which it is watered. Capital, Scottsville. There were in 1840, neat cattle 8,051, sheep 11,419, swine 28,165; wheat 47,157 bush, produced, Ind. corn 312,665, oats 103,418, potatoes 16,117, tobacco 508,870 pounds, cotton 17,869, sugar 35,113; 11 stores, cap. $19,800; 2 tanneries, 49 distilleries, 6 flouring m., 3 grist m., 9 saw m. Cap. in manufac $8,850. 5 sch. 104 scholars. Pop. whites 6,375, slaves 935, free col'd 19; total, 7,329.

Table of Contents

Source: A Complete Descriptive And Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith, 1843

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