Cincinnati, a city, port of entry, and capital of Hamilton co.,
O., 116 s. w. Columbus, 492 W. Cincinnati, the most populous
city w. of the Alleghany mountains, and the sixth in the United
States, is situated on the Ohio r., near the s. w. corner of the
state of Ohio, in Hamilton co., 504 ms., by the course of the
river, above its junction with the Mississippi. It is in 39° 6'
30" n. lat., and 84° 27' w. long, from Greenwich, and 7° 24' 45"
w. from w. It is 116 s. w. from Columbus; 250 Cleveland; 120
Indianapolis; 270 Nashville, Tenn.; 850 New Orleans; 350 St.
Louis; 105 Louisville; 518 Baltimore; 298 Pittsburgh; 617
Philadelphia; 492 Washington; 900 from New York, by Lake Erie,
and 600 from Charleston, S. C. In 1795 it contained 500
inhabitants; in 1800, 750; in 1810, 2,510; in 1820, 9,642; in
183 J, 24,831; in 1810, 46,333. Besides this, there is estimated
to be a floating population of from 2,000 to 3,000. Engaged in
commerce, 2,226; in manufactures and trades, 10,866; learned
professions, 431. It is built on an elevated plain, on the n.
bank of the Ohio, 540 feet above tide water at Albany, and 25
feet below the level of Lake Erie; but low water mark is 431
above tide water, and 133 below the level of Lake Erie. The
shore of the Ohio here forms a good landing for boats at all
seasons of the year, the principal landing being paved to low
water murk, in a substantial manner, and supplied with floating
wharves, rendered necessary by the great rise and fall of the
river at different times. The descent from the upper part of
Cincinnati to low water mark on the Ohio, is 108 feet. The city
is near the eastern extremity of a pleasant valley, about 12
miles in circumference, skirted to the n. by a circular ridge of
hills, the summits of which are not more than 300 feet above the
plain, but of picturesque appearance. The ground on which the
city stands consists of two plains, the rear one elevated 50 or
60 feet above the front, though the ascent, by grading, has been
extensively reduced to a gradual slope. The view of the city is
beautiful from the hills in the rear; but as approached by
water, it is neither extensive nor commanding.
Excepting on the margin of the river, it is regularly laid out
in streets and alleys, crossing each other at right angles. The
streets running e. and w. are denominated, proceeding from the
river, First, Second, &c, while those running n. and s. are
named after the native trees, as Walnut, Sycamore, &c.
Main-street extends from the steam-boat landing on the river
directly n. to the northern boundary of the city. 14 streets, 7
in each direction, are 65 feet wide, and 3J6 feet apart. The
central portion of the city is compactly built, with handsome
houses and stores; but the extensive plan, in its outer parts,
is but partially built up, and the houses are irregularly
scattered. Many of the streets are well paved, and extensively
shaded by trees. The houses are generally of stone or brick. The
climate is changeable and subject to considerable extremes of
heat and cold, but is, on the whole, healthy.
The court house, on Main Street, is 56 by 60 feet, and 120 feet
high, to the top of the dome. The edifice of the Franklin and La
Fayette banks of Cincinnati has a splendid portico of 8 Doric
columns, after the model of the Parthenon at Athens, but is in a
confined situation. It is 79 feet long and 60 feet deep,
exclusive of the portico. Several of the churches are fine
specimens of architecture, and a number of the hotels are
spacious and elegant. There are 1 market houses, a bazaar, a
theatre, a college, an Athenaeum, a medical college, a
mechanics' institute, 2 museums, a lunatic asylum, a high
school, and a number of large and commodious houses for public
schools. Within the last year 800 buildings have been erected,
among which are many large warehouses and stores, and several
Cincinnati College was founded in 1819 and had, in 1840. 8
instructors, and 84 students. It has academical, medical, and
law departments. The Medical College of Ohio has trustees ap-pointed
by the legislature every 3 years, and it has 8 professors, and
130 students. The College of Professional Teachers was formed in
1832, and has for its object the improvement of schools in the
western country, and holds an annual meeting in October. The
Mechanics' Institute is formed for the improvement of mechanics
in scientific knowledge, by means of popular lectures and mutual
instruction. It has a valuable philosophical apparatus, a
respectable library, and a reading-room, much frequented by
young men. The Cincinnati Lyceum furnishes an instructive and
fashionable place of resort to the citizens, by its popular
lectures and debates through the winter season. It has a good
library and a reading room. The Athenreum is a respectable
literary institution, under the direction of the Catholics, in
which the mathematics, philosophy, and the classics, as well as
the modern languages, are taught by competent professors. It has
over 70 students, and a large and splendid edifice. The Lane
Seminary, at Walnut Hills, 2 miles from the city, has 3
professors, 61 students, and a library of 10,300 volumes. It has
a literary as well as theological department. Woodward High
School, named after its founder, gives education, in part
gratuitously, to a large number of students. It has 4
instructors, and a large and commodious building. There is a
great number of respectable private schools, and 20 public
schools for males and females, in which there are 2,000 pupils.
There are 43 churches in Cincinnati, of which 3 are old school
Presbyterian, 4 new school Presbyterian, 2 Scots Presbyterian, 2
Episcopal, 3 Baptist, 7 Methodist, 2 Protestant Methodist, 2
Catholic, 2 Friends, and various others.
Cincinnati is an extensive manufacturing place-Its destitution
of water power has been extensively compensated by the
employment of steam mills. There were in 1840, 42 foreign
commercial and 36 commission houses, with a capital of
$5,200,000; 1,035 retail stores, with a capital of $12,877,000;
19 lumber yards, capital $133,000; 245 persons were engaged in
internal transportation, who, with 790 butchers, packers, &c,
employed a capital of $4,071,930; 14 furnaces, cap. $478,000;
value of machinery manufactured, $545,000; hardware, cutlery,
&c, $289,000; precious metals, $48,000; various other metals,
$713,000; 4 woolen fac, cap. $39,000; 1 cotton fac, cap. $6,000;
tobacco manufactures, capital $61,000; 13 tanneries, cap.
$156,000; manufactures of leather, as saddleries, &c, cap.
$552,000; 2 distilleries, and 6 breweries, with a capital of
$152,000; paints, drugs, &c, cap. $26,000; 4 rope walks, cap.
$34,000; carriages and wagons, cap. $63,000; 10 flouring m., 8
saw m., 2 oil m., total cap. $367,000; vessels built, value,
$403,000; furniture amounted to $459,000; 264 brick and stone,
and 74 wooden houses built, cost $1,196,000; 32 printing
offices, 13 binderies, produced 3,800 daily newspapers, 33,100
weekly, 1,800 semi-weekly, and 17,200 periodicals, with a
capital of $266,000. Total cap. in manufac. $7,469,912. 2
colleges, 80 students, 2 acad. 120 students, 51 sch. 5,445
scholars. There were 5 incorporated and 2 unincorporated banks,
with an aggregate capital of nearly $6,000,000.
From many directions, good roads converge to this place, and
bring the rich products of the surrounding country to this
market. The Miami railroad extends from Cincinnati 85 miles to
Springfield. The Miami canal extends from Cincinnati 178 miles
to Defiance, where it joins the Wabash and Erie canal. The
internal trade of Cincinnati is thus very extensive. The tonnage
of the port in 1810, was 12,052. There are 7 daily papers, which
are also issued weekly or tri-weekly; 8 weekly papers, a large
number of magazines, issued semi-monthly or monthly, and a
number of religious magazines, published monthly.
The municipal government of the city consists of a president,
recorder, and 21 councilors, 3 for each of the 7 wards into
which the city is divided.
Cincinnati was founded in 1789, by
emigrants from New England and New Jersey, on the site of Fort
Washington. It has grown with great rapidity, and now ranks as
the sixth place in population in the United States; and, it
being the great emporium of the West, it must continue to
increase with the growth of the rapidly rising country with
which it is connected.
Table of Contents
Source: A Complete Descriptive And
Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel
Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith,
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