American History and Genealogy Project

State of Indiana

Indiana, one of the western United States, is bounded n. by Michigan lake and state; e. by Ohio; s. by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Ohio River; and w. by Illinois. It is between 37° 45' and 41° 52' n. lat., and between 84° 42' and 87° 49' w. Ion., and between 7° 45' and 11° w. from W. It has a mean length of 260 miles, and a mean breadth of 140 miles; containing 36.000 square miles, or 23,040,000 acres. The population in 1800 was 5,641; in 1810, 24520; in 1820, 147,178; in 1830, 341,532; in 1840, 685,866. White males, 352,773; do. females, 325,925; colored males, 3,731; do. females, 3,434. Employed in agriculture, 148,806; in commerce, 3,076; in manufactures and trades, 20,590; in mining, 233; navigating the ocean, 89; do. canals, rivers, and lakes, 677; learned professions, 2,257.

There are in this state 87 counties, which, with their population, in 1840, and their capitals, were, as follows:

County, Population, Capital

Adams, 2,264, Decatur La Porte, 8,184, La Porte
Allen, 5,942, Fort Wayne Lawrence, 11,782, Bedford
Blackford, 1,226, Hartford Madison, 8,874, Andersontown
Bartholomew, 10,042, Columbus Marshall, 1,651, Plymouth
Boone, 8,121, Lebanon Marion, 16,080, Indianapolis
Brown, 2.364, Nashville Margin, 3,875, Mt. Pleasant
Benton. Benton C. H. Miami, 3,048, Peru
Carroll, 7,819, Delphi Monroe, 10,143, Bloomington
Cass, 5,430, Logansport Montgomery, 14,433, Crawfordsville
Clarke, 14,595, Charlestown Morgan, 10,741, Martinsville
Clay, 5,567, Bowling Green Noble, 2,702, Augusta
Clinton, 7,503, Frankfort Orange, 9,602, Paoli
Crawford, 5,282, Fredonia Owen, 8,359, Spencer
Daviess, 6.720, Washington Parke, 13,499, Rockville
Dearborn, 19,327, Lawrenceburg Perry, 4,655, Rome
Decatur, 12,171, Greensburg Pike, 4,769, Petersburg
De Kalb, 1,963, Auburn Porter, 2,162, Valparaiso
Delaware, 8,843, Muncytown Posey, 9,683, Mt. Vernon
Dubois, 3,632, Jasper Pulaski, 561, Winnimac
Elkhart, 6,660, Goshen Putnam, 16,843, Green Castle
Fayette, 9,837, Connersville Randolph, 10,634, Winchester
Floyd, 9,454, New Albany Ripley, 10,392, Versailles
Fountain, 11,218, Covington Rush, 6,456, Rushville
Franklin, 13,349, Brookville Scott, 4,242, Lexington
Fulton, 1,993, Rochester Shelby, 12,005, Shelbyville
Gibson, 8,977, Princeton Spencer, 6,305, Rockport
Grant, 4,875, Marion St. Joseph, 6,425, South Bend
Greene, 8,321, Bloomfield Stark, 149, Stark C. H.
Hamilton, 9,855, Noblesville Steuben, 2,578, Angola
Hancock, 7,535, Greenfield Sullivan, 8,315, Benton
Harrison, 12,459, Corydon Switzerland, 9,920, Vevay
Hendricks, 11,264, Danville Tippecanoe, 13,724, Lafayette
Henry, 15,128, Newcastle Union, 8,017, Liberty
Huntington, 1,579, Huntington Vanderburg, 6,250, Evansville
Jackson, 8,961, Brownston Vermilion, 8,274, Newport
Jasper, 1,267, Rensselaer Vigo, 12,076, Terre Haute
Jay 3,363, Portland Wabash, 2,756, Wabash
Jefferson, 16,614, Madison Warren, 5,656, Williamsport
Jennings, 8,829, Vernon Warwick, 6,321, Booneville
Johnson, 9,352, Franklin Washington, 15,269, Salem
Knox, 10,657, Vincennes Wayne, 23,290, Centreville
Kosciusko, 4,170, Warsaw Wells, 1,822, Bluffton
La Grange, 3,664, Lima White, 1,832, Monticello
Lake, 1,468, Crown Point Whitley, 1,237, Columbia

Indianapolis, near the center of the state, on White river, is the seat of government.

There are no mountains in Indiana, but the country bordering on the Ohio is hilly. A range of lulls runs parallel with the Ohio, from the mouth of the Great Miami to Blue River, alternately approaching to within a few rods, and receding to the distance of two miles. Immediately below Blue River, the hills cease, and there is presented to view an immense tract of level land, covered with a heavy growth of timber. Bordering on all the principal streams, except the Ohio, are strips of bottom and prairie land, from 3 to 6 miles in width. Remote from the rivers the country is broken, and the soil light. Between the Wabash and Lake Michigan, the country is generally level, interspersed with woodlands, prairies, lakes, and swamps. The shore of Lake Michigan is lined by lofty bare sand hills 200 feet high, back of which are sandy hillocks, with a growth of pine The prairies bordering on the Wabash are particularly rich, having ordinarily a vegetable soil from 2 to 5 feet deep. The natural growth of the soil consists of several kinds of oak, ash, beech, buckeye, walnut, cherry, maple, elm, sassafras, linden, honeylocust, cotton wood, sycamore, and mulberry. The principal productions are wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, buckwheat, barley, potatoes, beef, pork, butter, cheese, &c.

In 1840, there were in this state 241,036 horses and mules; 619,980 neat cattle; 675,982 sheep; 1,623,608 swine; poultry, to the value of $357,594. There were produced, 4,049,375 bushels of wheat; 28,015 of barley; 5,981,605 of oats; 129,621 of rye; 49,019 of buckwheat; 23,155,887 of Indian corn; 1,237,919 pounds of wool; 38,591 of hops; 30,647 of wax; 1,525,794 bushels of potatoes; 178,029 tons of hay; 8,605 of flax and hemp; 1,820,306 pounds of tobacco; 3,727,795 of sugar. The products of the dairy were valued at $742,269; of the orchard, at $110,055; of lumber, at $420,791. There were made 10,265 gallons of wine; and value of skins and furs $220,883.

Iron and coal have been found in this state, and there are some salt springs, and Epsom salts are found in a cave near Corydon; but the mineral productions have no great interest.

The climate is generally healthy and pleasant; the winters are mild in the southern, and more severe in the northern parts.

The Ohio River washes the whole southern border of this state, and furnishes great facilities for trade. The Wabash is the largest river in this state, being 500 miles in length. It rises in Ohio, and passes west wardly and south westwardly through the state, when it forms a part of the western boundary for 120 miles, and enters the Ohio 30 miles above Cumberland River. It is navigable for steamboats to La Fayette, 300 miles, a part of the year. White river, its largest branch, is 200 miles long, and is navigable in its w. fork for steamboats to Indianapolis, in season of floods. It consists of an e. fork and w. fork, which unite about 30 miles above its junction with the Wabash. The White Water River runs in the eastern part of the state, and enters the Great Miami a little above its mouth. The St. Joseph's river enters the N. part of the state from Michigan, and after a course of 40 miles, passes through Michigan into Michigan Lake. Lake Michigan touches this state in its n. w. part.

The largest place in the state is New Albany, on the Ohio River, a little below Louisville. Indianapolis, Madison, and Evansville, are flourishing places. Vincennes, Terre Haute, La Fayette, Logansport, and Fort Wayne, are growing centers of trade in the interior.

There were in the state in 1840, 11 commercial and 26 commission houses engaged in foreign trade, with a capital of $1,207,400; 1,801 retail dry goods and other stores, with a capital of $5,664,687: 767 persons employed in the lumber trade, with a capital of $90,374; 2,705 persons engaged in internal transportation, who, with 237 butchers, packers, &c, employed a capital of $582,165.

The amount of homemade or family manufactures, was $1,289,802. There were 24 fulling mills, and 37 woolen manufactories, employing 103 persons, producing goods to the amount of $58,867, and employing a capital of $77,954; 12 cotton manufactories, with 4,983 spindles, employing 210 persons, producing articles to the amount of $135,400, with a capital of $142,500; 7 furnaces, producing 810 tons of cast iron, and 1 forge, producing 20 tons of bar iron, employing 103 persons, and a cap. of $57,700; 47 persons produced 242,040 bushels of bituminous coal, with a capital of $9,300, 3 paper manufactories, producing to the amount of $86,457, and other manufactures of paper producing to the amount of $54,000, the whole employing 100 persons, and a capital of $68,739; 26 1 persons manufactured flax to the amount of $6,851; 88 persons manufactured tobacco to the amount of $65,659 with a capital of $24,706; hats and caps were manufactured to the amount of $122,844, and straw bonnets to the amount of $2,048, the whole employing 183 persons, and a capital of $69,018; 425 tanneries employed 978 persons, and a capital of $399,627; 579 other manufactories of leather, saddleries, &c, produced articles to the amount of $730,001, and employed a capital of $247,549; 45 potteries employed 79 persons, produced articles to the amount of $35,835, with a capital of $13,685; 26 persons produced drugs and paints to the amount of $47,720, with a capital of $17,984; 120 persons produced machinery to the amount of $123,808; 83 persons produced hardware and l cutlery to the amount of $34,263; 47 persons manufactured 885 small-arms; 2 persons manufactured the precious metals to the amount of $3,500; 28 persons manufactured granite and marble to, the amount of $6,720; 1,007 persons produced bricks and lime to the amount of $206,751, with a; capital of $140,469; 30 persons made 1,135,560 pounds of soap, 228,938 pounds of tallow candles; 111 pounds of wax and spermaceti candles, with a capital of $13,039; 323 distilleries produced 1,787,108 gallons, 20 breweries, produced 188,392 gallons, the whole employing 500 persons, and a capital of $292,316; 5 rope walks, employing 11 persons, produced cordage to the amount of $5,850, with a capital of $2,270; 481 persons manufactured carriages and wagons to the amount of $163,135, with a capital of $78,116; 204 flouring mills manufactured 224,624 barrels of flour, and with other mills, employed 2,224 persons, producing articles to the amount of $2,329,134, and employing a capital of $2,077,018; vessels were built to the amount of $107,223; 564 persons produced furniture to the amount of $211,481, with a capital of $91,022; 346 brick or stone houses, and 4,270 wooden houses, employed 5,519 persons, and cost $1,241,312; 69 printing offices, 6 binderies, 4 semi weekly, and 69 weekly newspapers, and 3 periodicals, employed 211 persons, and a capital of S5S.505. The whole amount of capital employed in manufactures was $4,132,043.

Indiana College, at Bloomington, was founded in 1827; South Hanover College, at South Hanover, was founded in 1829; Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, was founded in 1833; the Indiana Asbury University, under the Methodists, was founded in 1839. In these institutions there were in 1840, 322 students. There were in the state 54 academies, with 2,946 students; and 1,521 common and primary schools, with 48,189 scholars. Of white persons over 20 years of age, 38,100 could neither read nor write.

In 1836, the Baptists had 334 churches, and 218 ministers; the Presbyterians had 109 churches and 70 ministers; the Methodists about 70 preachers. The Lutherans in 1840 had 30 congregations, and 8 ministers. Besides these there is a considerable number of Friends, and some Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, and some Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists of different descriptions.

In the commencement of 1840, there was one bank, with 12 branches, in the state, with a capital of 82,595,221 and a circulation of $2,985,370. At the close of 1840, the state debt amounted to $13667,433.

The governor is elected by the people for 3 years, and may be once reelected. At every election of governor, a lieutenant-governor is elected, who is president of the senate, and who discharges he duty of the governor in case of his death, resignation, or removal.

The senators and representatives are apportioned among the counties according to the number jf white male inhabitants over 21 years of age. There can never be fewer than 36 nor over 100 representatives; and the number of senators can never be less, than one third, nor more than one half the number of representatives. The representatives, and one third of the senators, are elected annually by the people. The legislature meets annually at Indianapolis, in December. The judges of the supreme and circuit courts are appointed for the term of 7 years. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate; the chief justices of the circuit courts by the legislature; and the associate judges by the people. The right of suffrage s enjoyed by all male inhabitants, over 21 years of age, who have resided in the state one year immediately preceding the election.

The greatest work of internal improvement undertaken by this state, is the Wabash and Erie Canal, which extends from Lafayette, on the Wabash, 187 miles to Lake Erie, at Toledo, on the Iaumee bay; 87¼ miles of it being in Ohio, and 99¾ in Indiana. The Whitewater canal extends com Lawrenceburg, 30 miles to Brookville. This canal, when completed, will connect Cambridge and the national road, with the Ohio River, the entire length being 76 miles, at an estimated cost of 81,400,000. The Central canal is designed to connect the Wabash and Erie Canal at Peru, with the Ohio River at Evansville, passing through Indianapolis. The entire length will be 290 miles, and the estimated cost $3,500,000. Parts of this work have been completed. Terre Haute and Eel River canal will connect Terre Haute, the southern termination of the Wabash and Erie Canal, with the Central canal in Greene County, at a distance of 40½ miles, and an estimated expense of 11,629,631. This work is not completed. The Madison and Indianapolis railroad extends from Madison, on the Ohio River, 95 miles to Indianapolis. It is nearly completed. Several other canals and railroads have been projected.

In 1730, the French made a settlement at Vincennes, when they were attempting to extend their costs from Canada to Louisiana. At the peace between France and England, in 1763, this country came into possession of the English, who, however, made no attempt to settle it until after the revolutionary war. In 1737, the United States took possession of Vincennes, and erected a fort on the opposite bank of the river, as a defense against the natives. The inhabitants at this period consisted of French, of Canadians, and of Indians. In 1801, this region constituted a part of the Northwest Territory, and a territorial government was established over it. About 3 years after, a considerable portion of the territory was purchased of the Indians. This country suffered much from the Indians and British, during the last war with Great Britain; but they were defeated at the battle of Tippecanoe by the Americans, under Gen. W. H. Harrison. In the year 1816, Indiana was admitted to the Union, since which time, its progress has been rapid in population and improvement.

Table of Contents

Source: A Complete Descriptive And Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith, 1843

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