American History and Genealogy Project

State of Maryland

Maryland, the most southern of the middle United States, is bounded n. by Pennsylvania; e. by Delaware and the Atlantic; and s. and w. by Virginia. It is between 33° and 39° 44' n. lat., and between 75° 10' and 79° 20' w. Ion., and between 2° 31' w. and 1° 53' e. from W. It is 196 miles long, and 120 broad, containing 13,959 square miles, or 8,933,760 acres, of which one fifth is water. The Chesapeake Bay runs nearly through the state from s. to n., dividing it into two parts, called the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore.

The population in 1790, was 319,723; in 1800, 345,824; in 1810, 380,546; in 1820, 407,350; in 1830, 446,913; in 1840, 469,232, of which 89,495 were slaves. Of the free population 158,636 were white males; 159,081 do. females; 29,173 were colored males; 32,847 do. females. Employed in agriculture, 60,851; in commerce, 3,249; in manufactures and trades, 21,325; navigating the ocean, 721 do. canals, creeks, and rivers, 1,519; learned professions, 1,647.

This state is divided into 20 counties, which, with their population in 1840, and their capitals, are as follows:

County, Population, Capital

Western Shore Eastern Shore
Alleghany, 15,690, Cumberland Caroline. 7,806, Denton
Anne Arundel, 29,532, Annapolis Cecil, 17,232, Elkton
Baltimore, 134,379, Baltimore Dorchester, 18,843, Cambridge
Calvert, 9,229, Prince Frederick Kent, 10,842, Chestertown
Carroll, 17,241 Westminster Queen Anne's, 12,633, Centreville
Charles, 16,023, Port Tobacco Somerset, 19,508, Princess Anne
Frederick, 36,405, Frederick Talbot, 12,0110, Easton
Harford, 17,120, Bel Air Worcester, 18,377, Snowhill
Montgomery, 14,669, Rockville ...
Prince George's, 19,539, Upper Marlboro ...
St. Mary's, 13,224, Leonardtown ...
Washington, 28,850, Hagerstown ...

Annapolis, on the western shore of the Chesapeake, on the Severn River, is the seat of government.

In the counties on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake, the land is generally level and low, mi in many places is covered with stagnant waters, which give rise, in the summer and fall, to ague, and intermittent fevers and many of the inhabitants have a sickly appearance. The soil possesses considerable fertility, and produces a beautiful white wheat, Indian corn, sweet Potatoes, and tobacco. The country on the western shore of the Chesapeake, below the falls of the rivers, is level and free from stones, and is very similar to that on the eastern shore. Above the falls, the country becomes gradually uneven and hilly; and in the western part of the state it is mountainous, being crossed by different ranges, under the names of South mountain, North mountain, Sideling hill, Warrior's, Evits', Willis', and Alleghany mountains. Wheat and tobacco are the staple productions; but some cotton, of an inferior quality, is raised in the western counties and, south of Baltimore, a bright tobacco, of superior quality, denominated kitesfoot. Hemp and flax are produced ii considerable quantities. The soil of the state is generally a red loam, or clay, and much of it ii excellent. Apples, pears, peaches, and plums, are abundant. The forests abound with various nuts, suitable for fattening hogs, which are suffered to run wild in the woods, and, when fattened are killed and exported in great quantities. The climate, in the mountainous region in the western part of the state, is salubrious; and in the valleys between the mountains is much fine land, adapted both to grain and to grazing.

In this state there were in 1840, 92,920 horses and mules; 225,714 neat cattle; 257,922 sheep 416,943 swine; poultry to the value of $218,765. There were produced 3,345,783 bush, of wheat 3,594 of barley; 3,534,211 of oats; 723,577 of rye; 73,606 of buckwheat; 8,233,086 of Ind. corn 488,201 lbs. of wool; 2,357 of hops; 3,674 of wax; 1,036,433 bush, of Potatoes; 106,637 tons of hay 24,816,012 pounds of tobacco; 5,673 of cotton; 2,290 of silk cocoons; 36,266 of sugar. The products of the dairy amounted to $457,466; of the orchard, $105,740; of lumber, $226,977. There were made 7,535 gallons of wine.

Iron ore is found in various parts of the state, and extensive beds of coal exist between the mountains in the western part.

This state carries on an extensive trade with the other states, with the West Indies, and with Europe, principally from Baltimore. The exports consist of flour, tobacco, iron, lumber, Ind. Corn, pork, flax seed, beans, and fish, particularly shellfish.

The Potomac River, which divides this state from Virginia, is 550 miles long, and navigable about 300 miles to Washington city. It is 1½ miles wide at its mouth, and 1½ at Alexandria, 290 rail from its mouth. The Susquehanna is a large river, which enters into the head of the Chesapeake Bay in this state. It is 1¼ mile wide at its mouth, but is navigable only 5 miles, being, above that, much obstructed by falls and rapids. The Patapsco is a small river, navigable, however, 14 miles to Baltimore for large ships. The Patuxent is 110 miles long, and is navigable for 50 miles for vessels of 250 tons. The other rivers are Elk, Sassafras, Chester, Choptank, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke.

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The Chesapeake bay is 270 miles long, and from 7 to 20 wide; and, by its deep water and numerous inlets, furnishes many fine harbors.

Baltimore is much the largest place in the state, and is the third in population in the United States. This state possesses great facilities for inland and foreign trade, and has an extensive commerce. The other principal towns are Frederick, Hagerstown, and Annapolis.

The exports of this state in 1810 amounted to $5,768,766, and the imports to $4,910,746. There were in the state 70 commercial and 117 commission houses engaged in foreign trade, employing a capital of $4,414,000; 2,562 retail drgoods and other stores, with a capital of $9,246,170; 1,330 persons engaged in the lumber trade, employing a capital of $307,300; 103 persons employed in internal transportation, who, with 211 butchers, packers. &c, employed a capital of $23,880; 7,814 persons employed in the fisheries, with a capital of $88,947.

The principal manufactures were of homemade or family articles, to the amount of $176,050; 39 fulling mills and 29 woolen manufactories, employing 383 persons, producing articles to the amount of $235,900, and employing a capital of $117,630; 21 cotton manufactories, with 41,182 sp., employing 2,284 persons, producing articles to the amount of $1,150,530, and employing a capital of $1,304,400; 13 rope factories employed 198 persons, and produced articles to the amount of $141,050; 12 furnaces, producing 8,876 tons of cast iron, and 17 forges, &c, producing 7,900 tons of bar iron, the whole employing 1,782 persons, and a capital of $795,650; 17 paper manufactories produced to the amount of $195,100, and other paper manufactories $3,000, the whole employing 171 persons, and a capital of $95,400; 93 persons produced 1,865,210 pounds of soap, and 731,446 do. of tallow 7 candles, and 35,000 do. of spermaceti candles, employing a capital of $98,600; 73 distilleries produced 366.213 gallons, and 11 breweries produced 828,140 gallons, the whole employing, 199 persons, and a capital of $185,790; hats and caps were manufactured to the amount of $153,456, and straw bonnets to the amount of $13,200, the whole employing 205 persons, and a capital of $76,620; 161 tanneries employed 1,035 persons, and a capital of $713,655; 408 saddleries, and other manufactories of leather, produced articles to the amount of $1,050,275, with a capital of $434,127; 1 glass house, employing 37 persons, to the amount of $40,000, with a capital of $30.000; 23 potteries employed 90 persons, producing to the amount of $60,240, with a capital of $25,120; 5 powder mills employed 47 persons, and produced 669,125 pounds of gun powder, with a capital of $46,000; 52 persons produced drugs and paints to the amount of $30,100, with a capital of $S5,100; 6 sugar refineries produced $176,000; 102 persons produced confectionary to the amount of $73,450; 278 persons manufactured tobacco to the amount of $232,000, with a capital of $125,100; 247 persons manufactured granite and marble to the amount of $152,750;,042 persons produced bricks and lime to the amount of $409,456; 723 persons produced machinery the amount of $348,165; 36 persons manufactured hardware and cutlery to the amount of $15,670; 690 persons produced carriages and wagons to the amount of $357,622, with a capital of $354,955; 189 flouring mills produced 466,708 barrels of flour, and, with other mills, employed 898 persons, producing articles to the amount of $3,267,250, and employed a capital of $4,069,671; ships were built to the amount of $279,771; 834 persons manufactured furniture to the amount of $305,360, with a capital of $339,336: 389 brick or stone houses, and 592 wooden houses, were built, employing 2,026 persons, and cost $1,078,770; 48 printing offices, and 15 binderies, 7 daily, 7 semi-weekly, and 28 weekly newspapers, and 7 periodicals, employed 376 persons, and a capital of 159,100. The whole amount of capital employed in manufactures in the state amounted to 6,450,284.

Washington College, at Chestertown, was established in 1782; St. John's College, at Annapolis, in 1784. These two subsequently formed a university. St. Mary's College, at Baltimore, was founded in 1799, by the Catholics. The Baltimore Medical School was founded in 1807. In 1812 there were connected with it the faculties of general science, law, and divinity, and it received the name of the University of Maryland. Mount St. Mary's College was established near Emmetsburg, in 1330, by the Catholics. These institutions had, in 1840, about 400 students. Besides, there were 127 academies and grammar schools, with 4,178 students; and 567 primary and common schools, with 16.932 scholars. There were 11,605 white persons, over 20 years of age, who could neither read nor write.

The first settlers of this state were Roman Catholics, and they are still numerous. They have an archbishop, who is metropolitan of the United States, and 60 churches. The Episcopalians have 77 ministers; the Presbyterians 25; the Baltimore Methodist Conference, which extends into some other states, has 172 travelling preachers; the Baptists have 20 ministers; the German Reformed 9; and there are some Lutherans, Friends, Unitarians, &c.

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There were in this state in 1840, 13 banks, with an aggregate capital of $9,106,031, and a circulation of $2,328,525. At the close of 1840, the state debt amounted to $15,109,026. There is a state penitentiary in Baltimore, first occupied in 1829.

The constitution of this state was formed in 1776, but has been frequently amended since that time. The governor is chosen annually by the joint ballot of both houses of the legislature, and is eligible only 3 years in 7. He must be 25 years of age, and have resided in the state 5 years. The senators are 15 in number, 9 for the western and 6 for the eastern shore; they must be 25 years of age, have resided in the state 3 years, and are chosen for 5 years. The representatives must be 25 years of age, and have resided one year in the county for which they are chosen immediately preceding the election. They are 80 in number; 4 from each of the 19 counties, and two each from the cities of Baltimore and Annapolis. The council consists of 5 members elected by the legislature to advise the governor, and sanction or negative the executive appointments. They must be 25 years of age, and are chosen for 3 years. The governor has no veto upon the acts of the legislature. The judiciary consists of a chancellor and judges, who hold their offices during good behavior, but are removable by impeachment before the legislature by a vote of two thirds of the members.

Every free white male citizen, over 21 years of age, who has resided one year in the county, or in the city of Annapolis or Baltimore next preceding the election, enjoys the right of suffrage.

Two of the greatest works of internal improvement in the United States have been projected and commenced by Maryland. The first is the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, commencing at Georgetown, District of Columbia, and to extend to Cumberland, on the Potomac, and thence by Wills creek and the Youghiogheny and Monongahela rivers to Pittsburgh, a distance of 341½ miles. It would require a tunnel through the Alleghany Mountains 4 miles and 80 yards in length. The whole amount of lockage will be 3,215 feet. The estimated cost is $9,347,408. The state of Maryland has subscribed $3,000,000, and the United States $1,000,000, toward the completion of the undertaking. A charter was granted by Virginia in 1824, and confirmed by Maryland and the Congress of the U. S. in 1825, and the work was commenced in 1828. It has been nearly completed from Georgetown to Cumberland, 185 miles, and has been extended to Alexandria.

The second great work is the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, designed to extend from Baltimore to Wheeling, on the Ohio, 360 miles. It was incorporated by the legislature of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, in 1827, and commenced July 4th, 1828. The state of Maryland has subscribed to the stock $3,000,000, and the city of Baltimore $3,000,000. It is completed from Baltimore to Cumberland. The Washington Branch extends 30½ miles from Patapsco River to Washington. The Baltimore and Port Deposite railroad extends 36 miles from Baltimore to Havre de Grace. The Baltimore and Susquehanna railroad extends 56 ms. from Baltimore to York, Pa. The Reistertown Branch railroad commences 6 ms. from Baltimore, and extends 8 ms. to Reistertown. The Wilmington and Susquehanna railroad extends from Havre de Grace, 32 ms., to Wilmington, Del. The Annapolis and Elkridge railroad extends 19¼ miles from Washington Branch to Annapolis.

The original charter of Maryland was granted to Cecilius Calvert, (Lord Baltimore,) in 1632. It was originally included in the patent of the South Virginia Company, and was considered as belonging to Virginia, until the above date. It was called, by its proprietor, Maryland, in honor of Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I. The proprietor was a Catholic, and planted the first colony, consisting of 200 Roman Catholics, in 1634, on the n. side of the Potomac, at a town called St. Mary's. Previously to the grant to Calvert, a few emigrants had settled in the country, at the head of whom was a man by the name of Claiborne, who raised a rebellion against the proprietor, and instigated the Indians against the settlers, and gave them much trouble. Calvert offered W every emigrant fifty acres of land in fee, and without regard to religious persuasion; and as a free toleration was granted, the colony was increased. The constitution of Maryland was settled in 1650; the legislature was divided into two houses, and the province into 3 counties. Under Cromwell the Calvert family were deprived of the government, but were reinstated by Charles II at the restoration. They were deprived again under William and Mary, and Maryland continued o royal government until 1716. The Calvert who held the claims of his family then renounced the Roman Catholic religion, and was reinstated in his rights. At the commencement of the revolution, the authority fell into the hands of the people, who, in 1776, formed their constitution. From the first, they were active in resisting the acts of British oppression, and bore their part in the trial and hardships and dangers of the revolutionary war. In convention, April 28th, 1788, they adopted the constitution of the United States, yeas 63, nays 12; majority 51.

Maryland, pt, Otsego co., N. Y., 12 n. Cooperstown, 66 w. by n. Albany, 362 W. The surface is hilly; soil, sandy loam, fertile in the valleys. Drained by Schenevas cr. The v. contains 1 Presbyterian Church, 2 stores, 1 grist m., 1 saw m., 1 distillery, and about 20 dwelling. There are in the t. 6 stores, cap. $20,500; 1 fulling m., 1 tannery, 1 distillery, 3 grist m., 17 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $38,315. 16 sch. 763 scholars. Pop. 2,085.

Table of Contents

Source: A Complete Descriptive And Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith, 1843

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