State of Missouri
Missouri, one of the western United
States, is bounded n. by Iowa Territory; e. by Illinois,
Kentucky, and Tennessee, from which it is separated by the
Mississippi River; s. by Arkansas; and w. by the Indian
Territory. It is between 36° and 40° 36' n. lat., and between
89° and 95°,30' w. Ion., and between 12° 17' and 17° 28' W. Ion.
from W. It is 287 miles long, and 230 broad, containing 64,000
square miles, or 40,960,000 acres. The population in 1310, was
19,833; in 1820, '66,586; in 1830, 140,074; in 1840, 383,702, of
which 58,240 were slaves. Of the free population, 173,470 were
white males; 150,418 do. females; 883 were colored males; 691
do. females. Employed in agriculture, 92,408; in commerce,
2,522; in manufactures and trades, 11,100; in mining, 742 :
navigating the ocean, 39; do. canals, rivers, &c. 1,885; learned
This state is divided into 62 counties, which, with their
population in 1810, and their capitals, were as follows :
|Audrain, 1,949, Mexico
||Marion, 9,623, Palmyra
|Barry, 4,795, McDonald
||Miller, 2,282, Tuscumbia
|Benton, 4,205, Warsaw
||Monroe, 9,505, Paris
|Boone, 13,561, Columbia
||Morgan, 4,407, Versailles
|Buchanan, 6,237, Sparta
||Montgomery, 4,371, Danville
|Caldwell, 1,458, Far West
||New Madrid, 4,554, New Madrid
|Callaway, 11,765, Fulton
||Newton, 3,790, Neosho
|Cape Girardeau, 9,359, Jackson
||Perry, 5,760, Perryville
|Carroll, 2,433, Carrollton
||Pettis, 2,930, Georgetown
|Chariton, 4,746, Keytesville
||Platte, 8,913, Platte City
|Clark, 2,846, Waterloo
||Pike, 10,646, Bowling Green
|Clay, 8,282, Liberty
||Polk, 8,449, Bolivar
|Clinton, 2,724, Plattsburg
||Pulaski, 6,529, Waynesville
|Cole, 9,286, Jefferson City
||Ralls, 5,670, New London
|Cooper, 10,484, Booneville
||Randolph, 7,198, Huntsville
|Crawford, 3,561, Steelville
||Ray, 6,553, Richmond
|Daviess, 2,736, Gallatin
||Richmond, 2,856, Van Buren
|Franklin, 7,515, Union
(name changed to Henry) 4,726, Clinton
|Gasconade, 5,330, Herman
||St. Charles, 7,911, St. Charles
|Greene, 5,372, Springfield
||St. Francis, 3,211, Farmington
|Howard, 13,108, Fayette
||St. Genevieve, 3,148, St.
|Jackson, 7,612, Independence
||St. Louis, 35,979, St. Louis
|Jefferson, 4,296, Hillsboro
||Saline, 5,258, Marshall
|Johnson, 1.471, Warrensburg
||Scott, 5,974, Benton
Fayette, 6,815, Lexington
Livingston, 4,325, Chilicothe
Washington, 7,213, Potosi
There have been several new counties
erected since 1840.
Jefferson City, on the s. bank of the Missouri River, 15 miles
above the mouth of the Osage r., is the seat of government.
This state presents a great variety of surface and of soil.
Alluvial or bottom land is found on the margin of the rivers;
receding from them, the land rises, sometimes almost
imperceptibly, sometimes very abruptly, into elevated barrens or
rocky ridges. In the interior, bottoms and barrens, naked hills
and prairies, heavy forests and streams of water, may often be
seen at one view, presenting a diversified and beautiful
landscape. The southeast part of the state has a very extensive
tract of low marshy country, abounding in lakes, and liable to
inundation. Back of this, a hilly country extends as far as the
Osage River. This portion of the state, though not generally
distinguished for the fertility of its soil, though it is
interspersed with fertile portions, is particularly celebrated
for its mineral treasures. Of the minerals and fossils already
discovered, the principal are lead, coal, plaster, iron,
manganese, zinc, antimony, cobalt, various kinds of ochre,
common salt, nitre, plumbago, porphyry, jasper, chalcedony, and
marble. Lead is extensively found; a district 100 miles long and
40 broad, the center of which is 70 miles s. w. of St. Louis,
and about 35 from Herculaneum, is the part of the state where it
is procured in the greatest abundance. This lead region covers
an area of more than 3,000 square miles. The ore is of the
richest kind and exists in quantities more than sufficient to
supply the demand of the whole United States. The iron mines are
scarcely less remarkable than the lead. In St. Francis County
exists the celebrated "mountain'' of micaceous oxide of iron,
which has an elevation of 300 feet above the surrounding plain,
is a mile and a half across its summit, and yields 80 percent
pure metal. Five miles south is another magnificent pyramidal
"mountain," denominated the Pilot Knob, 300 feet high, with a
base a mile and a half in circumference, of the same rich
species of iron ore. This pyramid is not in plates, but huge
masses of several tons in weight, which yields also 80 per cent
pure metal. Washington County is a perfect bed of metallic
treasures. Throughout the mineral district, are found beds of
rich, red, marl clay, which proves to be the very best manure
for the soil. Between the Osage and Missouri Rivers, is a tract
of country very fertile, and agreeably versified with woodland
and prairie, and abounding with coal, salt springs, &c. The
country north of the Missouri is emphatically the "garden of the
west." There is no part in the world were a greater extent of
country can be traversed more easily, when in its natural state.
The surface is for the most part delightfully rolling and
variegated, sometimes rising into picturesque hills then
stretching away into a sea of prairie, occasionally interspersed
with shady groves and shining streams. Almost every acre of this
country is susceptible of high agricultural improvement. The
chief productions are tobacco, cotton, Indian corn, wheat, rye,
oats, barley, and grasses. Large numbers of horses, mules,
horned cattle, sheep, and hogs are annually raised for
In the year 1840, there were in this state 196,132 horses and
mules; 433,875 neat cattle; 348,018 sheep; 1,271,161 swine;
poultry valued at $270,647. There were produced 1,037,386
bushels of wheat; 9,801 of barley; 2,234,947 of oats; 68,608 of
rye; 15,318 of buckwheat; 17,332,524 of Indian corn; 562,265
pounds of wool; 56,461 of wax; 783,768 bushels of Potatoes;
49,083 tons of hay; 18,010 of hemp and flax; 9,067,913 pounds of
tobacco; 121,121 of cotton; 274,853 of sugar. The products of
the dairy were valued at $100,432; of the orchard at $90,878; of
lumber at $70,355.
The climate of this state, though generally healthy, is subject
to great extremes of heat and cold. The Missouri is frozen so
hard for a number of weeks in the winter, as to be safely
crossed with loaded wagons. In the summer, the heat is often
great, but the air is generally pure, and dry, and salubrious.
The Mississippi winds along the entire eastern boundary of the
state, for a distance of 400 miles, and receives in its course
the waters of the great Missouri, which, indeed, deserves to be
regarded as the main stream. Through the central and richest
part of the state the Missouri rolls its immense volume of
water, being navigable for steamboats 1,800 ms. from its
entrance into the Mississippi, for 4 or 5 months in the year.
The La Mine, Osage, and Gasconade on the s., and the Grand and
Chariton on the n. side, are navigable tributaries of the
Missouri. Maramec River runs through the mineral district, is a
navigable stream, and enters the Mississippi 18 miles below St.
Louis. Salt River, which is also navigable, enters the
Mississippi 85 miles above the Missouri. The White and St.
Francis drain the s. e. and the tributaries of the Neosho the s.
w. part of the state.
St. Louis is much the largest and most commercial place in the
state. It is situated on the w bank of the Mississippi, 18 miles
below the mouth of the Missouri. St. Genevieve, about 100 miles
w. of the Mississippi, and 64 below St. Louis, is settled
principally by French, and has considerable trade, particularly
in lead. Potosi, in the mining district, is a flourishing town.
Herculaneum is the principal place of deposit for lead from the
mines. New Madrid is the most noted landing place for boats on
the Mississippi, above Natchez, and Clarkesville and Hannibal n.
of St. Louis St. Charles, on the Missouri, 20 miles above St.
Louis, is an important place, and Booneville, Lexington,
Liberty, and Independence, in the w. part of the state.
Jefferson City, the capital, on the Missouri, 134 miles from St.
Louis, is a growing place.
There were in 1840, 3 commercial and 39 commission houses
engaged in foreign trade, with capital of $746,500; 1,107 retail
drygoods and other stores, with a capital of $8,158,802; 34
persons employed in the lumber trade, with a capital of
$318,029; 79 persons engaged in internal transportation, who,
with 128 butchers, packers, &c, employed a capital of $173,650.
The amour of homemade or family manufactures was $1,149,544;
there were 9 woolen manufactories, employing 13 persons,
producing articles to the amount of $13,750, and employing a
capital of $5,000, 2 furnaces, producing 180 tons of cast iron,
and 4 forges, &c, producing 118 tons of bar iron, the whole
employing 80 persons, and a capital of $79,000; 21 smelting
houses, producing 5,295,4; pounds of lead, employing 252
persons, and a capital of $235,806; 69 persons produced 249,302
bushels of bituminous coal, employing a capital of $9,488; 36
persons produced 13,150 bushels of salt, with a capital of
$3,550; 12 potteries produced articles to the amount of $12,175,
employing 33 persons, and a capital of $7,250; 191 persons
produced machinery to the amount of $190,412, 48 persons
produced 959 small-arms; 12 persons manufactured the precious
metals to the amount of $5,450; 73 persons produced granite and
marble to the amount of $32,050; 671 persons produced bricks and
lime to the amount of $185,234; 293 distilleries produced
508,368 gallons, and breweries produced 374,700 gallons, the
whole employing 365 persons, and a capital of $189,9 : 201
persons produced carriages and wagons to the amount of $97,112,
with a capital of $45,074, 1 powder mill, employing 2 persons,
produced 7,500 pounds of gunpowder, with a capital of $1,005, 8
persons produced drugs and paints to the amount of $13,500, with
a capital of $7,000: 64 flouring mills produced 49,363 barrels
of flour, and, with other mills, employed 1,326 persons,
producing articles to the amount of $960,058, with a capital of
$1,266,019; 413 brick or stone houses, and 2 wooden houses, were
built by 1,966 persons, and cost $1,441,573; 40 printing
offices, 6 daily semi-weekly, or tri-weekly, and 24 weekly
newspapers, employed 143 persons, and a capital $79,350. The
whole amount of capital employed in manufactures was $2,704,405.
The University of St. Louis, (a Catholic institution,) at St.
Louis, was founded in 1829; St. Mar College, at Barrens, (also
Catholic,) was founded in 1830; Marion College, at New Palmyra,
was founded in 1831; Missouri University, at Columbia, was
founded in 1840; St. Charles College St. Charles, is a Methodist
institution, founded in 1839; Fayette College, at Fayette, is a
new institution. In all these colleges there were in 1840, 495
students. There were in the state, 47 academies, with 1,926
students; and 642 primary and common schools, with 16,788
scholars. There were 19,457 white persons over 20 years of age
who could neither read nor write.
In 1836 the Methodists had 51 travelling preachers, and 8,692
members; the Baptists had 146 churches 86 ministers, and 4,972
communicants; the Presbyterians had 33 churches and 17
ministers, the Roman Catholics had 1 bishop and 30 ministers;
the Episcopalians had 3 ministers. Besides these there were a
considerable number of Cumberland and Associate Reformed
Presbyterians, and 1 Unitarian minister.
In 1839, there were in this state 3 banks and branches, with an
aggregate capital of $1,116,123, and a circulation of $410,740.
At the close of 1840, the state debt amounted to $2,929,557.
The constitution of this state was formed at St. Louis in 1820.
The Governor is elected by the people for 4 years, but is
ineligible for the next succeeding 4 years. A
lieutenant-governor is chosen at the same time, and for the same
term, who is president of the senate. Every county is entitled
to send one representative, but the whole number can never
exceed 100. The senators are elected every 4 years, one half
retiring every second year; and their number can never be less
than 14, nor more than 33, chosen by districts, and apportioned
according to the number of free white inhabitants. The elections
for senators and representatives are held biennially in August.
The legislature meets once in two years, in the month of
November, at Jefferson City. Every male white citizen, over 21
years of age, who has resided one year in the state and three
months of it in the county in which he offers his vote, is
entitled to the right of suffrage. The judges of the Supreme
Court and the chancellor are appointed by the governor, with the
consent of the senate, and hold their offices during good
behavior, or until 65 years of age.
The territory of this state was included in Louisiana, purchased
of the French government in 1803. The town of St. Louis was
settled by the French in 1764, but was little more than a
trading post with the Indians, until it came into the possession
of the United States. In 1804 it was constituted a territory,
and in 1821 it was admitted to the Union, after much debate on
the subject of slavery, allowed by its constitution, under
Table of Contents
Source: A Complete Descriptive And
Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel
Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith,
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