American History and Genealogy Project

State of Ohio

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Ohio, the northeastern of the Western States, is bounded n. by Michigan and Lake Erie; E. by Pennsylvania and Virginia; s. by the Ohio River, which separates it from Virginia and Kentucky; and w. by Indiana. It is between 38° 30' and 42° n. lat., and between 80° 35' and 84° 47' w. Ion., d between 3° 31' and 7° 41' w. Ion. from W. It is 210 miles long from n. to s., and 200 miles broad from e. to w.; containing 40,000 square miles, or 25,600,000 acres. The population in 1790 was 3,000; in 1800, 45,365; in 1810, 230,760; in 1820, 581,434; in 1830, 937,637; in 1840, 1,519,467; being the third in population in the United States. Of these, 775,360 were white males; 726,762 do. females; 8,740 were free colored males; 8,602 do. females. Employed in agriculture, 272,579; in commerce, 9,201; in manufactures and trades, 66,265; in mining, 704; navigating the ocean, 212; do. rivers, canals, and lakes, 3,323; learned professions, 5,663.

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This state is divided into 79 counties, which, with their population in 1840, and their capitals are as follows:

County, Population, Capital

Adams, 13,183, West Union Lawrence, 9,738, Burlington
Allen, 9,079, Lima Licking, 35,096, Newark
Ashtabula, 23,724, Jefferson Logan, I Belle Fontaine
Athens, 19,109, Athens Lorain, 18,467, Elyria
Belmont, 30,901, St. Clairsville Lucas, 9,382, Toledo
Brown, 22,715, Georgetown Madison, 9,025, London
Butler, 28,173, Hamilton Marion, 14,765, Marion
Carroll, 18,108, Carrollton Medina, 18,352, Medina
Champaign, 16,721, Urbanna Meigs, 11,452, Chester
Clark 16,882, Springfield Mercer, 8,277, Celina
Clermont, 23,106, Batavia Miami, 19,688, Troy
Clinton, 15,719, Wilmington Monroe, 18,521, Woodfield
Columbiana 40,378, New Lisbon Montgomery, 31,938, Dayton
Coshocton, 21,590, Coshocton Morgan 20,852, McConnelsville
Crawford, 13,152, Bucyrus Muskingum, 38,749, Zanesville
Cuyahoga 26,506, Cleveland Ottawa, 2,248, Port Clinton
Darke, 13,282, Greenville Paulding, 1,034, Charloe
Delaware, 22,060, Delaware Perry, 19,344, Somerset
Erie, 12,599 Sandusky City Pickaway, 19,725, Circleville
Fairfield, 31,924, Lancaster Pike, 7,626, Piketon
Fayette, 10,984, Washington Preble, 19,482, Eaton
Franklin 25,049, Columbus Portage, 22,965, Ravenna
Gallia, 13,444, Gallipolis Putnam, 5,189, Putnam
Geauga, 16,297, Chardon Richland 44,532, Mansfield
Greene, 17,528, Xenia Ross, 27,460, Chilicothe 
Guernsey, 27,748, Cambridge Sandusky, 10,182, Lower Sandusky
Hamilton, 80,145, Cincinnati Scioto 11,192, Portsmouth
Hancock, 9,986, Findlay Seneca, 18,128, Tiffin
Hardin, 4,599, Kenton Shelby, 12,154, Sidney
Harrison, 20,099, Cadiz Stark, 34,603, Canton
Harrison, 20,099, Cadiz Summit, 22,560, Akron
Henry, 2,503, Napoleon Trumbull, 33,107, Warren
Highland, 22,269, Hillsboro Tuscarawas, 25,631, New Philadelphia
Hocking, 9,741, Logan Union, 8,422, Marysville
Holmes, 18,088, Millersburg Van Wert, 1,577, Van Wert
Huron, 23,933, Norwalk Warren, 23,141, Lebanon
Jackson, 9,744, Jackson Washington, 20,823, Marietta
Jefferson, 25,030, Steubenville Wayne, 35,808, Wooster
Knox, 29,579, Mount Vernon Williams, 4,465, Bryan
Lake 13,719, Painesville Wood, 5,35 Perrysburg

Columbus, on the Scioto, just below the confluence of the Whetstone, is the seat of government.

The interior of the state, and the country bordering on Lake Erie, are generally level, and in some places marshy. From one quarter to one third of the state, comprehending the eastern as southeastern part, bordering on the Ohio River, is generally hilly and broken, but not mountainous. There is no elevation which deserves the name of a mountain, in the whole state. The interval lands on the Ohio, and several of its tributaries, have great fertility. On both sides of the Scioto and of the Great and Little Miami, are the most extensive bodies of rich and level land in the state. On the head waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and between the Scioto and the two Miami rivers are extensive prairies, some of them low and marshy, producing a great quantity coarse grass, from 2 to 5 feet high; other parts of the prairies are elevated and dry, with a very fertile soil, though they are sometimes called barrens. The height of land which divides the waters which fall into the Ohio from those which fall into Lake Erie, is the most marshy of any in the state; while the land on the margins of the rivers is generally dry. Among the forest are black walnut, oak of various species, hickory, maple of several kinds, beech, birch, poplar, sycamore, ash of several kinds, pawpaw, buckeye, cherry, and whitewood, which is extensively used as a substitute for pine. Wheat may be regarded as the staple production of the state, but Indian corn and other grains are produced in great abundance. Although Ohio has already become populous, it is surprising to the traveler to observe what an amount of forest is yet un-subdued.

The summers are warm and pretty regular, but subject, at times, to severe drought. The winters are generally mild, but much less so in the northern than in the southern part of the state. Near Lake Erie, the winters are probably as severe as in the same latitude on the Atlantic the country for 50 miles south of Lake Erie, there are generally a number of weeks of good sleighing in the winter; but in the southern part of the state, the snow is too small in quantity, or of short continuance, to produce good sleighing for any considerable time. In the neighborhood Cincinnati green peas are produced in plenty by the 20th of May.

In parts of the state near marshes and stagnant waters, fevers and agues, and bilious: other fevers, are prevalent With this exception, the climate of Ohio may be regarded as health

There were in this state in 1840, 430,527 horses and mules; 1,217,874 neat cattle; 2,028, sheep; 2,099,746 swine; poultry, to the value of §551, 193. There were produced 16,571,661 hi of wheat; 212,440 of barley; 14,393, 103 of oats; 814,205 of rye; 633,139 of buckwheat; 33,668, of Indian corn; 3,685,315 pounds of wool; 62,195 of hops; 38,950 of wax; 5,805,021 bushels of potatoes; 1,022,037 tons of hay; 9,080 of hemp and flax; 5,942,275 pounds of tobacco; 4,317 of silk cocoons; 6,363,386 of sugar; the products of the dairy were valued at $1,848,869; of the orchard at $475,271; of lumber $262,821. There were made 11,524 gallons of wine; and 6,809 tons of pot and pearl ashes.

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Salt springs have been found on Yellow cr., in Jefferson County; on the waters of Killbuck, in Wayne County; on Muskingum River, near Zanesville; and at various other places. Bituminous coal is found in great quantities in the eastern part of the state, particularly near Massilon, in Stark County, and in Tallmadge, in Summit County. This coal is delivered to consumers in Cleveland for 15 cents a bushel. Iron ore is found in various places, particularly near Zanesville, and on Bush cr., in Adams County.

The Ohio River, which gives name to the stale, washes its entire southern border. This river is 908 miles long, from Pittsburg to its mouth, by its various windings, though it is only 614 in a straight line. Its current is gentle, with no falls excepting at Louisville, Kentucky, where there is a descent of 221 feet in two miles, but this has been obviated by a canal. For about half the year it is navigable for steamboats of a large class through its whole course. The Muskingum, the largest river which flows entirely in the state, is formed by the junction of the Tuscarawas and Walholding Rivers, and enters the Ohio at Marietta. It is navigable for boats 100 miles. The Scioto, the second river in magnitude flowing entirely within the state, is about 200 miles long, and enters the Ohio at Portsmouth. Its largest branch is the Whetstone or Olentangy, which joins it immediately above Columbus. It is navigable for boats 130 miles. The Great Miami is a rapid river in the western part of the state, 100 ms. long, and enters the Ohio in the s. w. corner of the state. The Little Miami has a course of 70 miles, and enters the Ohio 7 miles above Cincinnati. The Maumee is 100 miles long, rises in Indiana, runs through the n. w. part of this state, and enters Lake Erie at Maumee bay. It is navigable for steamboats to Perrysburg, 18 miles from the lake and above the rapids is boatable for a considerable distance. The Sandusky rises in the northern part of the state, and, after a course of about 80 miles, it enters Sandusky bay, and thence into Lake Erie. The Cuyahoga rises in the n. part of the state, and, after a curved course of 60 miles, enters Lake Erie at Cleveland. It has a number of falls which furnish valuable mill seats. Besides these, Huron, Vermilion, Black, Grand, and Ashtabula rivers fall into Lake Erie.

Lake Erie borders this state for about 150 miles, and has several harbors, among which the largest are made by Maumee and Sandusky bays. Besides these are the harbors of Huron, Cleveland, Fairport, and Ashtabula.

Cincinnati, on the Ohio, is much the largest and most commercial city of the state. Next in rank is Cleveland, on Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, and the Ohio canal. Besides these, Dayton, Columbus, Steubenville, Zanesville, Chilicothe, Lancaster, Newark, Circleville, and Massilon are flourishing places, with considerable trade.

The exports of this state in 1840 amounted to $991,954; and the imports to $4,915. There were 3 commercial and 241 commission houses engaged in foreign trade, with a capital of $5,928,200;,603 retail drygoods and other stores, with a capital of $21,282,225; 2,891 persons employed in the lumber trade, with a capital of $373,268; 854 persons engaged in internal transportation, who, wth 1,061 butchers, packers, &c, employed a capital of $4,617,570.

The amount of home-made or family manufactures was $1,853,937; there were 130 woolen manufactories, and 206 fulling mills, producing goods to the amount of $685,757, employing 935 persons, and a capital of $537,985; 8 cotton manufactories, with 13,754 spindles, employing 246 persons, producing articles to the amount of $139,378, and employing a capital of $113,500; 72 furnaces produced 35,236 tons of cost iron, and 19 forges, &c, produced 7,466 tons of bar iron, consuming 104,312 tons of fuel, employing 2,268 persons, and a capital of $1,161,900; 434 persons produced 3,513,409 bushels of bituminous coal, with a capital of $45,525; 14 paper manufactories, employing 305 persons, produced articles to the amount of $270,202, with a capital of $208,200; 1 persons manufactured flax, producing the amount of $11,737, with a capital of $242; hats and caps were manufactured to the amount of $728,513, and straw bonnets to the amount of $3,028, the whole employing 963 persons, and a capital of $369,637; 812 tanneries employed 1,790 persons, nth a capital of $957,333; 1,160 other manufactories of leather, as saddleries, &c, produced articles to the amount of $1,986,146, with a capital of $917,245; 187 persons manufactured tobacco to the amount of $212,818, with a capital of $68,810; 99 potteries employed 199 persons, manufacturing to the amount of $89,754, employing a capital of $43,450; 858 persons produced machinery to the value of $875,731; 289 persons produced hardware and cutlery to the amount of $393,300; 70 persons produced 3 cannon, and 2,450 small-arms; 37 persons manufactured the precious metals to the amount of $53,125; 589 persons manufactured other metals to the amount of $782,901; 70 persons produced drugs and paints to the amount of $101,880, with a capital of $126,335; 401 persons manufactured granite and marble to the amount of $256,131; 1,469 persons produced bricks and to the amount of $712,697; 13 persons, in 2 powder mills, produced 222,500 pounds of powder with a capital of $18,000; 105 persons manufactured 3,503,036 pounds of soap, 2,318,456 pounds of tallow candles, 151 pounds of spermaceti and wax candles, employing a capital of $186,780; 390 distilleries produced 6,329,467 gallons, and 59 breweries produced 1,422,584 gallons, the whole employing 798 persons and a capital of $893,119; 21 ropewalks, employing 66 persons, produced articles to the amount of $89,750, with a capital of $37,675; 11 persons produced musical instruments to the amount of $8,454, with a capital of $5,000; 1,490 persons manufactured carriages and wagons to the amount of $701,228, with a capital of $290,540; 536 flouring mills produced 1,311,954 barrels of flour, and with other mills employed 4,661 persons, producing articles to the amount of $8,868,213, with a capital of $4,931,024; vessels were built to the amount of$522,S55; 1,928 persons manufactured furniture to the amount of $761,146, employing a capital of $534,317; 970 brick or stone houses, and 2,764 wooden houses, employed 6,060 persons, and cost $3,776,823; 159 printing offices, 41 binderies, 9 daily, 7 semi-weekly, and 107 weekly newspapers, and 20 periodicals, employed 1,175 persons, and a capital of $446,720. The whole amount of capital employed in manufactures was $16,905,257.

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Among the principal literary institutions, the University of Ohio, at Athens, was founded in 1821; the Miami University, at Oxford, was founded in 1809. These institutions have been endowed by large grants of lands. The Franklin College, at New Athens, was founded in 1825; the Western Reserve College, at Hudson, was founded in 1826; Kenyon College, at Gambier, (Episcopal,) was founded in 1826; Granville College, at Granville, (Baptist,) was founded in 1832; Marietta College, at Marietta, was founded in 1832; the Oberlin Collegiate Institute, at Oberlin, was founded in 1834; Cincinnati College, at Cincinnati, was founded 1819; as was also Woodward College, at the same place. Willoughby University, at Willoughby, is a medical institution, with a college charter. Lane Theological Seminary, at Cincinnati, was founded in 1829. There are also theological departments in Kenyon Western Reserve and Granville colleges, and in the Oberlin Institute; a Lutheran theological school at Columbus; two medical and one law school at Cincinnati. At all these institutions there were in 1840, 1,717 students. There w ere in the state 73 academies, with 4,310 students; 5,186 common and primary schools, with 218,609 scholars. There were 35,394 white persons over 20 years of age who could neither read nor write.

In 1836 the Presbyterians had 247 ministers; the Methodists had 200 ministers; the Baptists had 170 ministers; the Lutherans had 47 ministers; the Episcopalians had 1 bishop and 19 ministers; the German Reformed had 26 ministers. Besides these there are a considerable number of Friends and Catholics, and a few others.

There were in this state, at the commencement of 1840, 37 banks and branches, with an aggregate capital of $10,507,521, and a circulation of $4,607,127. The state debt, in Sept., 1840, was $991,954. There is a state penitentiary at Columbus.

This state has a number of important works of internal improvement. The Ohio canal extends from Cleveland, on Lake Erie, 307 miles, to Portsmouth, on the Ohio. It has a navigable feeder of 14 miles to Zanesville; one of 10 miles to Columbus; and 1 of 9 miles to Lancaster; one to Athens of 50 miles; the Walholding Branch of 23 miles; the Eastport Branch of 4 miles, and the Dresden of 2 miles. This great work was begun in 1825, and was finished in 1832, at a cost of $5,000,000. The Miami canal extends from Cincinnati, 178 miles, to Defiance, where it meets the Wabash and Erie Canal. The cost was $3,750,000. The whole distance to Lake Erie is 265 miles. The Warren canal, a branch of the above, extends from Middletown, 20 miles, to Lebanon. The Sandy and Beaver canal is to extend from the Ohio canal, at Bolivar, 76 miles, to Ohio River, at the mouth of Little Beaver creek. Cost estimated at $1,500,000. The Mahoning canal extends from the Ohio canal, at Akron, 88 miles, 8 of which are in Pa., to Beaver River, at a cost of $764,372. Milan canal extends from Huron, 3 miles, to Milan, to which steamboats now ascend The Mad River and Sandusky City railroad extends from Tiffin, 36 miles, to Sandusky City. The Ohio railroad extends from Manhattan, 40 miles, to Sandusky City.

The governor is elected by the people for 2 years. The senators are chosen biennially, and are apportioned according to the number of white male inhabitants over 21 years of age. The number can never be less than one third, nor more than one half of the number of the representatives. The representatives are apportioned among the counties according to the number of inhabitants over 21; and there can never be more than 72, nor less than 36.

The judges of the supreme and other courts are elected by the joint ballot of the legislature; for the term of seven years.

The right of suffrage is enjoyed by all white male inhabitants, over 21 years of age, who have resided in the state one year next preceding the election, and who have paid or been assessed with a state or county tax.

The first permanent English settlement, in Ohio, was made April 7th, 1788, at Marietta; and the first judicial court was held there in Sept. of the same year, under an act of congress passed in 1786. The next settlement was that of Symmes's Purchase, 6 miles below Cincinnati, in 1789. The next was made by French emigrants, at Gallipolis, in 1791. The next was made on Lake Erie, at Cleveland and Conneaut, in 1756, by emigrants from New England. In 1799 the first territorial legislature met at Cincinnati, and organized the government. Early in 1800 Connecticut relinquished her jurisdiction over the Western Reserve, and received a title to the land, which she sold to constitute her great school fund. In 1802 Ohio formed her state constitution, and was admitted to the Union.

Table of Contents

Source: A Complete Descriptive And Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith, 1843

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