Saint Louis City, Missouri
Saint Louis, City, and capital of St.
Louis co Missouri, is the largest place in the state, and is
situated on the w. bank of the Mississippi, 18 ms. by water
below the junction of the Missouri. Ii is in 38° 36' n. lat.,
and 89° 56' w. Ion, for Greenwich, and 13° 14' w. Ion. from W.;
30 ms. below the junction of the Illinois; 200 above that of the
Ohio; 1,800 miles, by the course the river, above New Orleans;
1,100 below the Falls of St. Anthony; 120 E. Jefferson City; 808
from Washington. The population in 1810 was 600; in 1820, 4,598;
in 1830, 6,694; in 1840, 16,469, of whom 1,531 were slaves.
Employed in commerce, 845; in manufactures and trades, 2,012;
navigating rivers, &c, 891; in the learned professions, &c, 188.
The situation of the city is pleasant and healthy. The ground
rises gradually from the first to the second bank of the river;
and on the second bank, which is about 40 feet higher than the
first, the city is chiefly built. It presents a beautiful
appearance as seen from the opposite side of the river, or as it
is approached on the river. At the distance of about half a mile
from the river, the ground attains its highest elevation, and
spreads out in a plain to the west. There are five principal
streets running parallel with the river, which are crossed by
many others, at right angles. Two streets along the river are
narrow, but those which have been more recently laid out, on the
second bank, are regular and spacious, and present many
commanding situations. The compact part of the city extends
about a mile and a half along the river; but there are suburbs
on the n. and s. making the whole extent five miles. It contains
many neat, and some elegant buildings. The more recent houses
are been built of brick, made of an excellent quality in the
immediate vicinity; some are of stone, quarried on the spot, and
generally white-washed. Many of the houses have spacious and
beautiful gardens attached to them.
Front-street is open on the side toward the water, and on the
other side is a range of ware-houses four stories high, built of
limestone, which have a very commanding appearance, and are the
seat of a heavy business. In First-street, he wholesale and
retail drygoods stores are seated; and in the streets back of
this are the artisans and tradesmen.
The city is watered from the Mississippi. The water is raised by
steam power to a reservoir situated on an elevated ancient
mound, whence is distributed in iron pipes through the city. A
company is also formed for lighting the city with gas. The
country around St. Louis, and w. for 15 miles, is a very fertile
prairie. The city is admirably situated for commerce, and
already surpasses in its trade every other place n. of New
Orleans. The Mississippi and the Illinois to the n.; the Ohio
and its tributaries to the s. e.; and the Missouri to the w.,
give it a ready access to a vast extent of country; and to the
s. the Mississippi furnishes an outlet to the ocean for its
accumulated productions. It is the principal western depot of
the American Fur Company, who have a large establishment in the
place, and nearly 1,000 men in their employ. A vast amount of
furs of every description is here collected; and 10,000 dried
buffalo tongues have been brought in in a single year. Numerous
steamboats ply from this place in various directs. The steamboat
arrivals, in a single year, have amounted to over 800, with a
tonnage of over 100,000. The total tonnage of this port in 1840
Among the public buildings, the City Hall, a splendid building
of brick, several of the churches, and particularly the Roman
Catholic Cathedral, deserve notice. The Cathedral is 136 feet
long, 84 feet wide, and the walls are 40 feet high. The front of
the edifice is 58 feet high, above which the tower of the
steeple rises 20 feet square to the height of 40 feet. This is
surmounted by an octagon spire covered with tin, crowned with a
brass gilt ball 5 feet in diameter, surmounted by a cross of
gilt brass 10 feet high. In the steeple is a peal of 6 bells,
the three largest of which weigh from 1,600 to 2,600 pounds
each. The front of the building is of polished freestone, with a
portico of 4 massive Doric columns. There is also a U. S. land
office, a Theatre, and a Concert Hall.
There are several literary and benevolent institutions in the
city. The St. Louis University is under the direction of the
Catholics, and has 15 instructors, 60 students, and 7,900
volumes in its libraries. It has a spacious building in the
city, and is amply endowed. The commencement is on the 31st of
July. Kemper College is under the direction of the
Episcopalians, and is beautifully situated 4 miles from the
city, with extensive grounds around it. Its medical department
is within the city, and has a spacious building capable of
accommodating 400 students, a hall for lectures, chemical
laboratory, &c. The Western Academy of Sciences has an extensive
museum of natural history and mineralogy, &c. There is also a
Museum, containing Indian antiquities, fossil remains, and other
The Convent of the Sacred Heart is an institution of nuns, for
conducting female education. The Protestant ladies conduct an
Orphan Asylum; and there is a Catholic Orphan Asylum conducted
by the Sisters of Charity.
There are 14 churches in the city, 2 Episcopal, 2 Methodist, 2
Presbyterian, 2 Roman Catholic, 1 Associate Reformed
Presbyterian, 1 German Lutheran, 1 Baptist, 1 Unitarian, 1
African Methodist, and 1 African Baptist.
The city has a bank and 2 insurance companies. In the southern
limits of the city is a U. S. arsenal, and 14 miles distant from
it are the U. S. Jefferson Barracks, capable of accommodating
600 or 700 men.
There were in 1840, 1 foreign commercial and 24 commission
houses, with a cap. of $717,000; 214 retail stores, with a cap.
of $3,875,050; 17 lumber yards, with a cap. of $237,529; 40
persons employed in internal transportation, together with 37
butchers and packers, employed a cap. of $141,500; furs, skins,
&c, valued at $306,300; machinery $169,807; 2 tanneries, cap.
$54,500; 1 distillery, and 6 breweries, capital $48,800; 1
ropewalk, cap. $10,000; 2 flouring m., 1 grist m., 6 saw m., 1
oil m., cap. $106,500; 22 printing offices, 6 daily, 7 weekly,
and 5 semi-weekly newspapers, employed a cap. $49,650; 210 brick
and stone, and 130 wooden houses, cost $761,980. Total cap. in
manufac. $674,250. 10 acad. 577 students, 7 sch. 713 scholars.
This place was founded in 1761, by the French from Canada, as a
trading post with the Indians; but during the French and Spanish
possession of it, it remained an inconsiderable village.
Table of Contents
Source: A Complete Descriptive And
Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel
Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith,
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