State of South Carolina
South Carolina, one of the southern
United States, is bounded n. by North Carolina; s. e. by the
Atlantic; and s. w. by Georgia, from which it is separated by
the Savannah River. It is between 32° 2' and 35° 10' n. lat.,
and between 78° 24' and 83° 30' w. Ion., and between 1° 45' and
6° 15' w. from W. It is 200 miles long and 125 broad, containing
about 25,000 square miles, or 16,000,000 acres. The population
in 1790 was 240,000; in 1800, 345,591; in 1810, 415,115; in
1820, 502,741; in 1830, 581,458; in 1840, 594,393, including
327,038 slaves. Of the free population, 130,496 were white
males; 128,588 do. females; 3,864 were colored males; 4,412 do.
females. Employed in agriculture, 198,363; in commerce, 1,953;
manufactures and trades, 10,325; navigating the ocean, 381;
canals, rivers, &c, 343; learned professions, &c, 1,481.
This state is divided into 29 districts, which with their
population in 1840, and their capitals, were as follows:
County, Population, Capital
|Abbeville, 29,351, Abbeville
||Lancaster, 9,907, Lancaster C.
|Anderson, 18,493, Anderson C.
||Laurens, 21,584, Laurensville
|Barnwell, 21,471, Barnwell C.
||Lexington, 12,111, Lexington
|Beaufort, 35,794, Coosawhatchie
||Marion, 13,932, Marion
|Charleston, 82,661, Charleston
|Chester, 17,747, Chester C. H.
||Newberry, 18,350, Newberry C.
||Orangeburg, 18,519, Orangeburg
|Colleton, 25,548, Walterborough
||Pickens, 14,356, Pickens C. H.
|Darlington, 14,822, Darlington
||Richland, 16,397, Columbia
|Edgefield, 32,852, Edgefield C.
|| Spartanburg, 23,699,
|Fairfield, 20,165, Winnsborough
||Sumter, 27,892, Sumterville
|Georgetown, 18,274, Georgetown
||Union, 18,936, Unionville
|Greenville, 17,839, Greenville
||Williamsburg, 10,327, Kingstree
|Horry, 5,755, Conwaysborough
|| York, 18,383, Yorkville
|Kershaw, 12,281, Camden
Columbia, on the left bank of the Congaree, immediately below
the confluence of Broad and Saluda rivers, is the seat of
The seacoast is bordered with a fine chain of islands; between
which and the shore there is a very convenient navigation. The
mainland is naturally divided into the Lower and Upper country.
The low country extends from 80 to 100 miles from the seacoast,
and is covered with extensive forests of pitch pine, called
pine-barrens, interspersed with marshes and swamps of a rich
soil. The banks of the large rivers, and the creeks of this
region, are bordered with a belt of excellent land, producing
cotton and Indian corn in abundance. The marshes and swamps in
this district make fine rice plantations.
After leaving the Low country, in proceeding into the interior,
you first pass through a region of little sand-hills, which have
been compared to the arrested waves of the sea in a storm. This
curious country, sometimes denominated the Middle country,
continues for 50 or 60 miles, till you arrive at the Ridge, or
Upper country, the ascent to which, proceeding from the
Atlantic, is sudden, and somewhat precipitous. The Lower falls
of the river are found along this ridge. The low grounds between
the sand hills in this region are suitable for agriculture and
pasturage; but with these exceptions, the country below the
ridge is barren, and scarcely worth cultivation. Beyond the
ridge commences a beautiful and healthy country of hills and
dales, and fine flowing streams of pure water. This whole region
may be regarded as an elevated table land, and is generally
fertile. At the distance of 220 miles n. w. from Charleston, the
land is 800 feet above the level of the sea. From this the
country rises gradually to the mountainous region to the w.,
where the great Alleghany range passes through the state, in
several ridges, some of which have high peaks. Table Mountain,
one of the most conspicuous of these, is 4,000 feet above the
level of the sea. The staple productions of the state are cotton
and rice, great quantities of which are exported. Rice was first
introduced in 1693, and is raised only in the low country, where
the land can be irrigated by the tide, or the overflowing of the
rivers. Indigo was formerly produced in large quantities, but it
has given place to the more profitable crop of cotton. The sea
island cotton produced in the islands along the shore, is of a
superior quality, and is in great demand.
In 1840, there were in this state 129,921 horses and mules;
572,608 neat cattle; 232,981 sheep; 878,532 swine; poultry to
the value of $396,364. There were produced 968,354 bushels of
wheat; 3,967 of barley; 1,486,208 of oats; 44,738 of rye;
14,722,805 of Indian corn; 299,170 pounds of wool; 15,857 of
wax; 2,698,313 bushels of potatoes; 24,618 tons of hay; 51,519
pounds of tobacco; 60,590,860 of rice; 61,710,274 of cotton;
2,080 of silk cocoons; 30,000 of sugar. The products of the
dairy were valued at $577,810; of the orchard, $52,275; of
The minerals in this state are gold, iron, various ochres,
marble, limestone, and some lead, potter's clay, fuller's earth,
and other useful fossils.
Charleston, at the confluence of Ashley and Cooper Rivers, is
much the largest and most commercial place in the state; but its
harbor is obstructed, at the entrance, by a dangerous sand bar.
Georgetown, at the head of Winyaw Bay, 13 miles from the ocean,
will only admit small vessels. Beaufort, on the island of Port
Royal, has much the best harbor in the state, but is not a place
of much trade. Besides these, Columbia, the capital, and
Georgetown, are flourishing places.
The great Pedee River, 450 miles long, rises in N. Carolina, and
runs through the eastern part of the state. It is navigable, for
sloops, 130 miles. The San tee, formed by the junction of the
Wateree and the Congaree, rises in North Carolina, and has a
sloop navigation for about 130 miles. The Saluda is a branch of
the Congaree. The Edisto is navigable for large boats 100 miles.
The Savannah washes the whole s. w. border of the state, and is
a noble stream. There are several smaller rivers, among which
are Cooper, Ashley, and Combahee.
The most important literary institution in this state is the
College of South Carolina, at Columbia, founded in
1804. There is a theological seminary
connected with the institution. It had in 1840, 163 students.
Charleston College was founded in 1785, and has about 65
students. There were in this state in 1840, 117 academies, or
grammar schools, with 4,326 students; and 566 common and primary
schools. There were 20,615 free white persons, over 20 years of
age, who could neither read nor write.
The Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians are the most
numerous religious denominations. At the commencement of 1836,
the Methodists had 37,503 communicants. The Baptists had 314
churches, 226 ministers, and 36,276 communicants. The
Presbyterians had 90 churches, 70 ministers. The Episcopalians
had 50 churches, 1 bishop, and 43 ministers. The Lutherans had,
in 1840, 24 ministers, 34 congregations, and 1,667 communicants.
There are a few congregations of Roman Catholics, Unitarians,
Friends, Universalists, and Jews.
At the commencement of 1840 there were 14 banks and branches in
this state, with an aggregate capital of $11,584,355, and a
circulation of $4,439,404. The state debt at the close of 1840,
amounted to $3,764,734.
The exports of this state in 1840 were $10,036,769; and the
imports were $2,058,870. There w r ere 41 commercial and 41
commission houses engaged in foreign trade, with a cap. of
$3,668,050; 1,253 retail drygoods and other stores, with a
capital of $6,648,736; 1,057 persons employed in the lumber
trade, with a capital of $100,000; 125 persons employed in
internal transportation, who, with 46 butchers, packers, &c,
employed a capital of $112,900; 53 persons employed in the
fisheries, with a capital of $1,617.
The amount of homemade or family manufactures was $930,703;
there were 3 woolen manufactories, employing 6 persons,
producing articles to the amount of $1,000, with a capital of
$4,300; 15 cotton manufactories, with 16,355 spindles, employing
570 persons, producing articles to the amount of $359,000,
employing a capital of $617,450; 4 furnaces, producing 1,250
tons of cast iron, and 9 forges producing 1,165 tons of bar
iron, employing 248 persons, and a capital of $113,300; 5
smelting houses, employing 69 persons, producing gold to the
amount of $37,418, with a capital of $40,000; 1 paper
manufactory, employing 30 persons, producing articles to the
amount of $20,800, with a capital of $30,000; 20 persons
produced hats and caps to the amount of $3,750; 97 tanneries,
employing 281 persons, and a capital of $212,020; 243 other
leather manufactories, as saddleries, fac, producing articles to
the amount of $109,472, employing a capital of $45,602; 8
potteries, employing 49 persons, producing articles to the
amount of $19,300, with a capital of $12,950; 127 persons
produced machinery to the amount of $65,561; 26 persons produced
hardware and cutlery to the amount of $13,465; 420 persons
produced carriages and wagons to the amount of $189,270, with a
capital of $132,690; 164 flouring mills produced 58,458 barrels
of flour, which with other mills employed 2,122 persons,
producing articles to the amount of $1,201,678, and employing a
capital of $1,668,804; 1,281 persons manufactured bricks and
lime to the amount of $193,408, with a capital of $72,445; 168
persons manufactured 586,327 pounds of soap, and 68,011 pounds
of tallow candles; 251 distilleries produced 102,288 gallons,
employing 219 persons, and a capital of $14,342; ships and
vessels were constructed to the amount of $60,000; 241 persons
manufactured furniture to the amount of $28,155, with a capital
of $133,600; 111 brick or stone houses, and 1,594 wooden houses
were erected, employing 2,398 persons, at a cost of $1,527,576;
16 printing offices, and 7 binderies, 3 daily, 12 weekly, and 2
semi-weekly newspapers, and 4 periodicals, employed 164 persons,
and a capital of $131,300. The amount of capital employed in
manufac. was $3,216,970.
The first constitution of South Carolina was formed in 1775; the
present constitution was adopted in 1790. The governor is
elected for 2 years by a joint vote of both houses of the
assembly. After having served one term, he is ineligible for the
next 4 years. A lieutenant-governor is chosen in the same manner
and for the same period. The senate consists of 45 members,
elected by districts for 4 years. The house of representatives
consists of 124 members, apportioned among the several
districts, according to the number of white inhabitants, and
taxation; and are elected for 2 years. The representatives and
one half the senators are chosen every second year, in October.
The legislature meets annually in Columbia, on the fourth Monday
of November. The chancellor and judges of the Supreme Court are
chosen by the joint ballot of both houses of the assembly, and
hold their offices during good behavior. Every free white male
citizen of 21 years of age, who has resided in the state 2 years
immediately preceding the election, and having been possessed of
a freehold of 50 acres of land, or a town lot, 6 months before
the election; or not possessing this freehold, who shall have
resided in the election district in which he offers to vote, 6
months before the election, and have paid a tax of 3 shillings
sterling to the support of the government, possesses the right
South Carolina has some important works of internal improvement.
The Santee canal extends 22 miles from Charleston harbor to the
Santee River and was finished in 1802, at a cost of $650,667.
Through this canal and the improvement of the Santee and
Congaree rivers, a boatable communication has been opened from
Charleston to Columbia. Winyaw canal extends 71 miles from
Winyaw bay to Kinlock creek, a branch of the Santee River.
The navigation of the Catawba River has been improved by 5 short
canals, with an aggregate length of about 11½ miles. Saluda
canal extends from the head of Saluda Shoals to Granby Ferry, 6¼
miles. Besides these, there are three other short canals to
avoid obstructions of falls or shoals in rivers.
The South Carolina railroad commences at Charleston and extends
1351 miles to Hamburg. This road was commenced in 1830 and
completed in 1834, at a cost of $1,750,000. It has since been
sold to the Louisville, Cincinnati and Charleston Railroad
Company for $2,400,000, paid for in the stock of the latter
company. The entire length of this road from Charleston to
Cincinnati will be 718 miles. The Branchville and Columbia
railroad extends from Branchville, on the South Carolina
railroad, 66 miles to Columbia. This is to form a part of the
Charleston, Louisville, and Cincinnati railroad.
The first settlement of this state was made under Governor Sayle,
at Port Royal, in 1670. The next year they settled Charleston
above its present site, but 9 years after they abandoned that
settlement and began to build Charleston where it now stands. In
1682 the province was divided into 3 counties. A colony of
French refugees, in 1690, exiled by the revocation of the edict
of Nantz, settled in Carolina; and from them many of its
respectable inhabitants are descended. The Church of England was
established by law, in 1703. The colonists throughout the
Carolinas threw off the proprietary government in 1719, and
established one for themselves. The next year the Privy Council
sanctioned the proceeding, and in 1729, the parliament purchased
the country of the proprietors, as mentioned in the account of
North Carolina. The country was then divided and this portion
received its present name of South Carolina. At different times
colonies of Swiss, of Germans, and of Irish have settled in this
state. In 1752, 1,600 foreign Protestants arrived in Carolina.
This state early suffered much from wars with the Indians. This
state was early in its resistance of the aggressions of the
mother country, and bore its part in the revolutionary war. The
British troops occupied Charleston and a considerable part of
the state in 1780. Several battles were fought here during that
and the succeeding year, the most important of which was that of
the Eutaw Springs, in 1781, which in effect terminated the war
in this state. In convention, May 23d, 1788, this state adopted
the constitution of the United States; yeas 149, nays 73-
Table of Contents
Source: A Complete Descriptive And
Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel
Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith,
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