Pacific Coast Business Directory

Idaho Territory

The Territory of Idaho was organized in 1863, from that portion of Washington lying east of the 117th degree of longitude and west of the Rocky Mountains, but it has boon abridged by the formation of Montana and Wyoming. Now the 111th meridian forms the eastern boundary, running north from the 42nd parallel until it strikes the Rocky Mountains, where it takes a northwest course along the summit of that range and of the Bitter Root Mountains to the 116th meridian, thence north to the 49th parallel of latitude, giving the eastern border a very irregular outline, and to the Territory as it appears on the map, the form of a gaiter boot. Idaho is bounded north by British Columbia and Montana, east by Montana and Wyoming, south by Utah and Nevada, and west by Oregon and Washington. The Territory is divided into ten counties, although not all organized. The counties are Ada, Alturas, Boise, Idaho, Kootenai, Lemhi, Nez Perce, Oneida, Owyhee and Shoshone. The principal towns: Centerville, Florence, Franklin, Idaho City, Lewiston, Malad City, Placerville, Salmon and Silver City.

In general the surface of the country is mountainous, the entire region having a high elevation, rising upon the east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the west resting upon the plateau of the Columbia. The Bitter Root, the Blue, and the Salmon Mountains are in the north, and the Goose Creek and Owyhee ranges in the south, with buttes and minor ranges irregularly breaking the country throughout with many valleys of greater or less extent between. The Pen d'Oreille, or Clark's Fork of the Columbia, rises in Montana and crosses the northern part of the Territory and the Snake, the great southern arm of the same stream rises in Wyoming and flows through the southern and western portion, receiving in its course the Owyhee from the south and the Salmon, Boise, Clearwater and others from the north.

While Idaho is regarded chiefly as a mining Territory, agriculture and grazing contend for equal rank. Many of the valleys are fertile and productive, and the hills are often covered with nutritious grasses. In the valleys contributory to the Owyhee is much good land, capable of producing all kinds of cereals, and many thousand cattle fatten upon the pasturage on the hills. Read more...

Pacific Coast Business Directory

Source: Pacific Coast Business Directory for 1876-78, Compiled by Henry G. Langley, San Francisco, 1875.


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