Part of the American History & Genealogy Project

Temperance Leaders Allen ~ Illiohan

 

Mrs. Mary Brook Allen's remarkable executive talent in reform and philanthropic work, combined with all the grace of a born orator, have made her such a power in the work for temperance that she has received the unqualified praise of such noted men as Doctor Heber Newton and Doctor Theodore Tyler.

Miss Julia A. Arms, to her the white ribbon and the silver cross were the symbols of life and her short life was crowned with the success of her brilliant work as editor of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union Department in the Chicago Inter-Ocean and as editor of the Union Signal.

Mrs. Ruth Allen Armstrong, as national superintendent of heredity for the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, issued leaflets and letters of instruction to aid in the development of the highest physical, mental and spiritual interest in those of her sex. Her lectures on heredity and motherhood were the first public instruction issued by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and their effect for social purity has been tremendous. They carried convictions that for the highest development of manhood and womanhood, parentage must be assumed as the highest, the holiest, and most sacred responsibility entrusted to us by the Creator.

Mrs. Lepha Eliza Bailey, whose girlhood was passed in Wisconsin that part of the country was an almost unbroken wilderness, afterwards a lecturer of national repute upon temperance and women's suffrage. In 1880 Mrs. Bailey was invited to speak under the auspices of the National Prohibition Alliance. She responded and continued to work in the East until that society disbanded, and finally merged with the Prohibition Party, under whose auspices she worked for years over the temperance field.

Mrs. Frances Julia Barnes, who in 1875 became associated with Frances E. Willard, in conducting Gospel temperance meetings in lower Farwell Hall, Chicago, was afterwards given charge of the young women's department of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Later she was made superintendent of the world's Young Women's Christian Temperance work and during every year she traveled extensively giving addresses and organizing new local unions. She was one of the most effective organizers that the cause of temperance had in the early days.  

Mrs. Josephine Penfield Cushman Bateman is one of the most devoted missionaries in die cause of temperance, for years managing the interests of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union at Asheville, North Carolina. When she was sixty-one years old, but with the same ardor for temperance as burned in her heart at the opening of the temperance crusade, twenty years before, made a lecture tour of every state and territory and through the Hawaiian Islands. She traveled sixteen thousand miles and gave three hundred lectures. She has also published a long line of valuable leaflets on temperance.

Mrs. Mary Frank Browne is the author of an interesting temperance book, "Overcome,'' portraying the evils of fashionable wine drinking and intemperance. In 1876 she organized the San Francisco Young Women's Christian Association, and it was through her efforts that the first free kindergarten among the very poorest people was established. Later she assisted in organizing the California Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of which she served as president for many years.

Mrs. Caroline Buell, the daughter of an itinerant minister, knew the trials of hard living and high thinking pertaining to that life and came out of it to work for temperance with her character developed on ruggedly noble lines. She entered heartily into the work, and her sound judgment, her powers of discrimination, her energy and her acquaintance with facts and persons made her at once a power in the temperance association. For many years she was reelected as corresponding secretary of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Mrs. Sarah C. Thorpe Bull, wife of the late Die Bull, the famous violinist; was long the superintendent of the department of sanitary and economic cooking in the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Mrs. Bull was largely instrumental in securing the monument to Ericsson on Commonwealth Avenue, Boston. Her home was for years in Cambridge, Mass.

Mrs. Helen Louise Bullock gave up her profession of music, in which she had achieved some prominence, to become a practical volunteer in the work for suffrage and temperance. In 1889 she was appointed national organizer of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and in that work went from Maine to California, traveling 13,000 miles in one year. During the first five years of her work she held over twelve hundred meetings, organizing a hundred and eight new unions and securing over ten thousand new members, active and honorary.

Mrs. Emeline S. Burlingame was the acknowledged leader in the securing of a prohibition amendment to the constitution of Rhode Island in 1884, In 1891 Mrs. Burlingame resigned the presidency of the Rhode Island Woman's Christian Temperance Union and was elected National Woman's Christian Temperance Evangelist and made her tour over the country addressing large audiences on the various phases of temperance work.

Miss Julia Colman originated the Temperance School that marked a new departure in the temperance work among children, using text-books, tracts, charts and experiments. For fifteen years she was superintendent of literature in the Woman's National Temperance Union.

Mrs. Anna Smeed Benjamin, of Michigan, is one of the best known orators in the cause of temperance. She was a logical, convincing, enthusiastic speaker, with a deep powerful voice and urgent manner, which made her a notable presiding officer. She was also a skilled parliamentarian and became superintendent of the national department of parliamentary uses in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The drills which she conducted in the white ribboners' "School of Methods" and elsewhere were always largely attended by both men and women.

Mrs. Sarah Hearst Black bore the labor of self-denial incident to the life of a home missionary's wife in Kansas, Nebraska and in Idaho, and achieved a splendid work of organization as president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Nebraska.

Miss Alice Stone Blackwell, daughter of Lucy Stone and Henry B. Blackwell, has come forward in the cause of temperance, as is shown in the small weekly paper of which she is the editor. This is called The Woman's Column and is also largely devoted to suffrage.

Mrs. Ellen A. Dayton Blair, of Iowa, as national organizer in the temperance cause, visited nearly every state and territory as well as Canada, and is a member of nearly every national convention.

Mrs. Ann Weaver Bradley has done notable work for temperance in Kansas and Michigan. From young womanhood she has had an inherent hatred for the destroying agents in narcotics, and has done splendid work for the cause, being especially fitted for it by her gifts of persistence, thoroughness of research and her love of humanity.

Mrs. Martha McClellan Brown worked strenuously as organizer of the National Prohibition Alliance and made her husband's newspaper the vehicle of a vigorous warfare against the liquor traffic Later, her husband and she were appointed to the presidency and vice-presidency of Cincinnati, Wesleyan College which offered them a field for propagating ideas of temperance in the young minds brought under their control.

Miss Cynthia S. Burnett passed her early life in Ohio, but her first "White Ribbon" work was done in Illinois, in 1879, later answering calls for help in Florida, Tennessee, Ohio and Pennsylvania. In 1885 she was made state organizer of Ohio, and the first year of this treaty she lectured one hundred and sixty-five times, besides holding meetings in the daytime and organizing over forty unions. Her voice failing, she accepted a call to Utah as teacher in the Methodist Episcopal College, in Salt Lake City. While living there she was made territorial president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and eight unions and fifteen loyal legions were organized by her. Each month one or more meetings were held by her and the work was further indorsed in a column of a Mormon paper which she edited. Later, she spent a year as state organizer in California and Nevada, and for these efficient services in the West she was made a national organizer in 1889. She spends the evening of her life as preceptress of her Alma Mater, which has become Farmington College.

Mrs. Mary Towne Burt began her work for temperance with the first crusade in Ohio and continued without intermission for many years. In March, 1874, she addressed a great audience in the Auburn Opera House on temperance and immediately afterward was elected president of the Auburn Woman's Christian Temperance Union, holding the office two years. She was a delegate to the first national convention held in Cleveland, Ohio, 1874, and was eventually promoted in the organization until she was made managing editor of the Woman's Temperance Union, the first official organ of the national union. In 1877 she was elected corresponding secretary of the national union, retaining the position for three years, and during that term of office she opened the first headquarters of the national union in the Bible House, New York City. In 1882 she was elected president of the New York State Union and during the years of her presidency it increased from five thousand to twenty-one thousand members, and from a hundred and seventy-nine to eight hundred and forty-two local unions.

Mrs. Matilda B. Carse, whose young son was run over and instantly killed by a wagon driven by a drunken man through the streets of Chicago, was brought by this tragedy to register a vow that until the last hour of her life she would devote every power of which she was possessed to annihilate the liquor traffic. She has been president of the Chicago Central Woman's Temperance Union since 1878. To Mrs. Carse is due the credit of establishing the first creche in Chicago, known as the Bethesda Day Nursery. Besides this, several other nurseries, two free kindergartens, two gospel temperance unions, the Anchorage Mission, a home for erring girls; a reading room for men, two dispensaries for the poor and two industrial schools have been established through Mrs. Carse's energetic management, and these charities are supported at a cost of over ten thousand dollars yearly. Mrs. Carse personally raised almost the entire amount and yet she has never received any compensation whatever for her services to the public. She founded the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association and in January, 1880, the first number of the Signal was published. This was a large sixteen page weekly paper and two years later when Our Union was merged with it, it became the Union Signal, the national organ of the society. In this publishing business Mrs. Carse started the first stock company composed entirely of women as no man can own stock in the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association. Mrs. Carse was president and financial factor of this association from its inception. The great building, the national headquarters of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, is a monument to her life work.

Mrs. Clara Christiana Chapin, prominent member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, in Nebraska, wrote much for the press on women and temperance questions. An Englishwoman by birth, Mrs. Chapin's life work has been of peat benefit to America, her pen and personal influence aiding materially in the securing of the temperance, educational and scientific law for the state in which she lived.

Mrs. Sallie F. Chapin, has always been a firm believer in prohibition as the sole remedy for intemperance. In the Woman's Christian Temperance Union she was conspicuous for years, serving as state president and she did much to extend that order in the South where conservatism hindered it for a long time. In 1881 she attended the convention in Washington, where she made a brilliant reply to the address of welcome on behalf of the South. A forceful and brilliant writer, she was at one time president of the Women's Press Association of the South. In the Chicago Woman's Christian Temperance Convention in 1882 when the Prohibition Home Protection Party was formed, she was made a member of the executive committee and by pen and voice she popularized that movement in the South.

Mrs. Louise L. Chase, in 1886, represented her state of Rhode Island, in the national convention of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, in Minneapolis, Minn. In 1891 she was elected state superintendent of scientific instruction in the schools of Middletown, Rhode Island.

Mrs. Elizabeth Coit, of Ohio, a well-known humanitarian and temperance worker throughout the West. During the Civil War she was a member of the committee of three appointed to draft the constitution of the Soldiers' Aid Society. She was chosen president of the first Woman's Suffrage Association organized at Columbus and for many years served as treasurer of the Ohio Woman Suffrage Association.

Mrs. Cordelia Throop Cole, of Iowa, took a most conspicuous part in the temperance crusade of her state, riding many miles on her lecture trips to meet appointments with the mercury twenty degrees below zero, and sometimes holding three or four meetings at different points within twenty-four hours. In 1885 she was made the Iowa superintendent of the White Shield and White Cross work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Her earnest talks to women were always a marked feature of her work and later her published leaflets "Helps in Mother Work" and "A Manual for Social Purity Workers" have been of admirable effect

Mrs. Emily M. J. Cooley began her temperance work in 1869 and when once awakened to the extent of the liquor evil she became one of its most determined foes. Although grown white-haired in the service is an indefatigable worker in the cause of prohibition. She served for years as state organizer in Nebraska and some time as national organizer speaking in every state in the Union. She did long service as president of the Second District Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of Nebraska.

Mrs. Mary A. Cornelius, despite the cares of motherhood and the responsibilities of her position as a pastor's wife, found time and energy to act for years as president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of Arkansas. While leading an effort for prohibition in her state her life was threatened by die desperate element in the capital of Arkansas and personal violence attempted. Still she persevered, her pen never idle. Poems, numerous prose articles and voluminous newspaper correspondence testified to her industry and enthusiasm in the temperance cause.

Mrs. Mary Helen Peck Crane delivered addresses on several occasions before the members of the New Jersey legislature when temperance bills were pending and she greatly aided the men who were fighting to secure good laws. At the Ocean Grove camp meeting, as the pioneer of press work by women, she gave valuable service and her reports for the New York Tribune and the New York Associated Press during the last ten years of those great religious and temperance gatherings at that noted Mecca of the Methodist Church, are models of their kind. She led the life of a sincere Christian, and died December 7, 1891, after a short illness contracted at the national convention of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Mrs. Emma A. Cranmar of Wisconsin has lectured on literary subjects and on temperance in many of the cities and towns of the Northwest. An earnest worker in the white ribbon movement, with which she has been connected for years, she served with great efficiency as president of the South Dakota Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Mrs. Lavantia Densmore Douglas has shown during her long life such ardent enthusiasm and untiring zeal in her work for prohibition that it made her name in her own community of Meadville, Pennsylvania, a synonym for temperance. She became a member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union and for many years was president of the Meadville Union. Arriving home from a trip to Europe on the twenty-third of December, 1873, the day of the great woman's crusade, and finding Meadville greatly aroused, she went immediately to the mass meeting that had been called and effected the temperance organization, which under one form or another has existed up till the present time.

Miss Cornelia M. Dow is the youngest daughter of Neal Dow, almost the original temperance reformer in the United States, and it is most natural that the greater part of her time should be given to works of temperance. For years she was officially connected with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Portland, Maine. She was president of the Union in Cumberland County, one of the superintendents of the state union as well as one of the most effective vice-presidents. Her mother died in 1883 and Miss Dow became her distinguished father's housekeeper and companion up to the time of his death.

Mrs. Marion Howard Dunham, of Iowa, entered upon the temperance field in 1877 with the inauguration of the red ribbon movement in her state, but believing in more permanent effort she was the prime mover in the organization of the local Woman's Christian Temperance Union. In 1883 she was elected state superintendent of the Department of Scientific Temperance and held the office for four years lecturing to institutes and general audiences on that subject most of the time. She procured the Iowa State Law on the subject in February, in 1886. When the Iowa State Temperance Union began to display its opposition to the national union she came to be considered a leader on the side of the minority who adhered to the national and when the majority in the state union seceded from the national union October 16, 1890, she was elected president of those remaining auxiliary to that body. She spends a large part of her time in the field lecturing on temperance, but is interested in all reforms that promise to better the system and condition of life for the multitudes.

Mrs. Edward H. East, of Tennessee, has spent much of her time and money in the cause of temperance. When the prohibition amendment was before the people of Tennessee she was active in the work to create sentiment in its favor.
A large tent that had been provided in the city as a means of conducting Gospel services she had moved to every part of the city. For a month she procured for each night able prohibition speakers. She was a delegate to every national convention after her first appearance in 1897.

Mrs. Lucie Ann Morrison Elmore, of West Virginia, was always a pronounced friend to all oppressed people, especially the colored people of the United States. She is an eloquent and convincing speaker on temperance and after coming to live in Englewood, New Jersey, she held several important editorial positions and she used these opportunities to present to the public her belief in freedom, quality and temperance.

Mrs. Rhoda Anna Esmond was married, and fifty-three years of age when first the influence of the woman's crusade of the West reached Syracuse, New York, where she was living, and she helped organize a woman's temperance society of four hundred members. Henceforth her life was devoted to the cause. She was made a delegate to the first state Woman's Christian Temperance Union Convention held in Brooklyn in February, 1875, with instruction to visit all die coffee houses and friendly inns in Brooklyn, New York, and Poughkeepsie, to gather all the information possible for the purpose of opening an inn in Syracuse. The inn was formally opened in July, 1875. As chairman of the inn committee she managed its affairs for nearly two years with remarkable success. In the first state Woman's Christian Temperance Union Mrs. Esmond has been made chairman of the committee on resolutions and appointed one of a committee on ''Memorial to the State Legislature" and many other offices were tendered her in the state and national associations. In 1889 she resigned the presidency of her local union having held that office nearly six years, and she then devoted herself to her duties as state superintendent of the Department of Unfermented Wine, to which she gave her most earnest efforts for many years.

Mrs. Harriet Newell Kneeland Goff entered the temperance lecture field in 1870, and has traveled throughout the United States, Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, speaking everywhere and under various auspices. In 1872 she was made a delegate by three societies of Philadelphia, where she then resided, to attend the prohibition convention in Columbus, Ohio, and there she became the first woman ever placed upon a nominating committee to name candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency of the United States. Through her presence and influence at that time was due the incorporation of woman suffrage into the platform of the Prohibition Party. She then published her first book (Philadelphia, 1876), "Was it an Inheritance?" and early the next year she became traveling correspondent to the New York Witness, besides contributing to Arthur's Home Magazine, the Independent and other journals. In 1880 she published her second book of which six editions were issued in one year. Her third volume (1887) was, "Who Cares?" Early in 1874 she had joined and lectured in several states for the Woman's Temperance Crusade. She became a leader in the organization and work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Philadelphia, and was a delegate therefrom to the first national convention of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, in Cleveland, Ohio, and again from the New York Union to the convention In Nashville, Tennessee in 1887. Her special work from 1886 to 1892 was for the employment of police matrons in Brooklyn, New York, then her place of residence. For this she labored long; drafting and circulating petitions, originating bills, interviewing mayors, commissioners, councilmen, committees of senate and assembly, and individual members of those bodies in behalf of the measure and by personal observations in station houses, cells, lodging rooms, jails and courts she substantiated her every argument, and as a result she procured such amendments of the law as would place every arrested woman in the state in the care of an officer of her own sex. Mrs. Goff is probably one of the most effective reform workers who ever fought for women's benefit in America.

Mrs. Jennie T. Gray, though of Quaker descent, became a zealous worker and a zealous speaker in the cause of temperance. Her greatest work was in the Woman's Temperance Union of Indiana, her home state, but she has traveled extensively, and in all her travels from ocean to ocean and from gulf to lake she endeavored to carry the strongest possible influence for temperance, often finding suitable occasions for advocating her claim in a most convincing way.

Miss Elizabeth W. Greenwood, already devoting her life to philanthropic work, when the Woman's Temperance Crusade opened she found her sympathies at once enlisted for the cause and she became conspicuous in the white ribbon movement, not only throughout New York State, but throughout the country. When scientific temperance instruction in the New York schools was being provided for Miss Greenwood, did important work with the legislature as state superintendent of that department. She served as national superintendent of juvenile work, and she was for years president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Brooklyn, where she did splendid work as lecturer and evangelist In 1888 she was made superintendent of the evangelistic department of the National Woman's Christian Union, and in 1889 she visited Europe, and there continued her reform methods.

Mrs. Eva Kinney Griffith was lecturer and organizer of the Wisconsin Woman's Temperance Union for seven years. Her illustrated lectures won her the name of "Wisconsin Chalk Talker." She wrote temperance lessons and poems for the Temperance Banner and the Union Signal, She published a temperance novel ''A Woman's Evangel" (Chicago, 1892), having already put out a volume named "Chalk Talk Handbook" (1887), and 'True Ideal," a journal devoted to purity and faith studies. In 1891 she moved to Chicago where she became a special writer for the Daily News-Record, and afterwards an editor on the Chicago Times, and by this means she made public her views on temperance.

Mrs. Sophronia Farrington Naylor Grubb during four years of the Civil War was one of those who gave time and strength in hospital, camp and field, and finally when the needs of the colored people were forced upon her attention she and her sister organized a most successful freedman's aid society. At the close of the war she returned to St Louis, and here as her sons grew to man-hood, the dangers surrounding them as a result of the liquor traffic, led Mrs. Grubb to a deep interest in the struggle of the home against the saloon. She saw there a conflict as great and needs as pressing as in the Civil War and she gradually concentrated upon it all her powers. In 1882 she was elected national superintendent of the work among foreigners one of the most onerous of the forty departments of the national organization of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and by her effort and interest she brought that department up to a thoroughly organized, wide-reaching and flourishing condition. She published leaflets and tracts on all the phases, economic, moral, social and evangelistic of the temperance question and in seventeen languages. At the rate of fifty editions of ten thousand each, per year, these were distributed all over the United States. She established a missionary department in Castle Garden, New York City, through which instructions in the duties and obligations of American citizenship were given to immigrants in their own tongue as they landed. She also served long as president of the Kansas Woman's Temperance Union.

Mrs. Anna Marie Nichols Hammer's connection with the work of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union was as superintendent of three departments, work among the reformed, juvenile work, and social or parlor work. In all these branches she was eminently successful. She was also vice-president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union for the state of Pennsylvania, and ranked high as a clear, forceful and ready speaker.

Mrs. Sarah Carmichael Harrell was a member and the secretary of the educational committee among the World's Fair managers of Indiana. Her greatest work was the origination and carrying to successful completion the plan known as the "Penny School Collection Fund of Indiana" to be used in the educational exhibit in the Columbian Exposition. From this work came to her the idea of temperance work among school children, and she was made superintendent of scientific temperance instruction for Indiana, and was moreover responsible for the enactment of a law to regulate the study of temperance in the public schools.

Mrs. Mary Antoinette Hitchcock was living with her husband. Rev. Alfred Hitchcock, in Kansas, when the Civil War cloud hung over the country, and being imbued by nature and training with Union and anti-slavery sentiments, she was all enthusiasm for the cause and ready to lend her aid in every way possible. At that time many of the leaders passed through their town to Osawatomie to form the Republican party and she housed and fed fifty of them in one night, among them Horace Greeley. Later in her life having moved to Fremont, Nebraska, where her husband accepted a pastorate, she became an enthusiastic member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and impressed with the idea that a state organization was necessary for its lasting influence she, in 1874, started the movement that resulted in the state organization. She was called to Sioux City, Iowa, on account of the death of her cousin, George G. Haddock, the circumstances of whose untimely murder at the hands of a drunken ruffian caused general indignation and horror. Over his lifeless body she promised the sorrow stricken wife to devote the remainder of her life to the eradication of the terrible liquor evil, and she fulfilled her promise. She accepted the state presidency of the Nebraska Temperance Union and for years traveled continually over the state, organizing unions and attending conventions.

Mrs. Emily Caroline Chandler Hodgin was one of the leaders in the temperance crusade of Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1872, and was a delegate to the convention in Cleveland, Ohio, where the crusading spirit was crystallized by the organization of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. After that she began work of organizing forces. In neighboring parts of the state. She became president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in her own county and secretary of the State Temperance Association, and she has greatly aided the cause from the lecture platform, for though a member of the Society of Friends, she availed herself of the freedom accorded to the speaker in meeting.

Mrs. Jennie Florella Holmes began her public work at the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, by giving good service to the Soldier's Aid Society of Jerseyville, Illinois. Earnest and untiring in her advocacy of the temperance cause and all equal political rights for women, on her removal, at marriage, to Tecumseh, Nebraska, she immediately allied herself with these elements and in the winter of 1881 she became a member of the first woman's suffrage convention held in that state and labored for the amendment submitted at that session of the legislature. She was chairman of the executive committee of the state suffrage society from 1881 to 1884. In 1884 she was elected president of the State Woman's Christian Temperance Union, which office she held for three years. She was elected delegate-at-large from Nebraska to the National Prohibition Party Convention held in Indianapolis in 1888 and in her ardent love for the cause she considered this the crowning honor of her laborious life. She remained, how-ever, with all her love for the temperance cause an active member of the Woman's Relief Corps and was sent a delegate to the Woman's Relief Corps Convention held in Milwaukee in 1889. She died in her home in Tecumseh the twentieth of March, 1892.

Mrs. Esther T. Housh became a prominent temperance worker in 1883 but she had done editorial work in the periodical Woman's Magazine published by her son in Brattleboro, Vermont, and when she attended the national convention in Detroit, she was immediately elected press superintendent of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. She held that position until 1888, instituting the National Bulletin which averaged eighty thousand copies a year. In the national conventions in Nashville and New York she furnished a report of the proceedings to a thousand selected papers of high standing. In 1885 she was elected state secretary of the Vermont Woman's Christian Temperance Union and -was given editorial charge of Our Home Guards, the state organ. Her literary work has been of the most valuable character for the cause.

Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, after a careful study of the sentimental, religious, and legal phases of temperance reform became convinced that if the nation were to develop on a high plane the liquor evil must be abolished by the wide dissemination of actual knowledge concerning the nature of the effects of alcohol upon the body and mind of man. She felt she must reach the children through the medium of the public schools. To reach the public schools with authority to teach, she must have behind her the power of the law, and her plan of operation she decided must include direct attack upon legislation, and to secure an influence over legislation there must be a demand from the people. Miss Hunt laid her plan before the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union and there was created an educational department of which she became the national superintendent by an appeal to the American Medical Association in their annual meeting of 1882, she secured a series of resolutions from that body concerning the evil nature and effects of alcoholic beverages. These resolutions were made the text for her successful appeals before legislative bodies. She superintended this work in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of the world, bringing the people to see the need of compulsory temperance education. Her work meant years of journeying from state to state addressing audiences almost continually, but it also meant victory in thirty-five states, in the national military and naval academies and in all Indian and colored schools under national control. It meant the creation of a new school of literature, the revision of old textbooks, and the actual creation of new ones covering the entire course of instruction concerning the welfare of the body. All in all Miss Hunt's work has been of extremely practical benefit to the cause of temperance.

Mrs. Henrica Iliohan was born in Vorden, province of Gelderland, kingdom of the Netherlands, but the love of liberty and independence seemed to have been instilled in her from birth, and when she had come to America and was obliged to earn her living, the disability of sex became of more and more importance as she thought and studied over her situation. In trying to read English she noted for the first time an article on woman suffrage in the Albany Journal. In 1871, when Mrs. Lillie Devereux Blake addressed the assembly and asked the question: "Whom do you think, gentlemen of the committee, to be most competent to cast a ballot, the mother who comes from the fireside or the father who comes from the comer saloon?" Mrs. Iliohan again pondered deeply. This was a query that struck home to this young foreign woman, living at that time in Albany, and she made inquiries as to why women did not and could not vote in this land of the free. Very much interested she read all that was accessible on the subject and when, in 1877, the first Woman's Suffrage Society of Albany was organized, she became an earnest member. With the remembrance of woman's share in the brave deeds recorded in Dutch history, she gained courage and enthusiasm and began to express her views publicly. Her first appearance on the lecture platform was a triumph. She was a foreigner no longer, but an American woman working for the rights of all American women. Encouraged by many she gained in experience and became one of the acknowledged leaders of the society. She was elected four times a delegate from her society to the annual convention in New York City and worked during the session of the legislature to obtain the consideration of that body. Mrs. Iliohan has also done some good work in translation. 'The Religion of Common Sense," from the German of Professor L. Ulich, was one of her valuable contributions. In 1887 she moved to Humphrey, Nebraska, and thereafter became identified with Nebraska and the subjects of reform in that state and as she had done in the East, she endeared herself to the leaders and to the public.

The Roll Call of Temperance Workers in America further includes:

Mrs. Mary L. Doe
Mrs. Martha M. Frazier
Mrs. Elizabeth P. Gordon
Mrs. Clara Cleghorn Hoffman
Mrs. Eliza B. Ingalls
Mrs. Lide Meriweather, well known for her work to obtain constitutional prohibition in Tennessee

Mrs. Ann Viola Neblett, indefatigable worker for temperance in Greenville, South Carolina, and the first woman in her state to declare herself for woman suffrage over her own signature in public print, which was an act of heroism and might have meant social ostracism in the conservative South

Mrs. Sarah Mariah Clinton Perkins, Mrs. Laura Jacinta Rittenhouse, of Illinois

Miss Mary Scott, an earnest advocate in Canada, whose writings on temperance have had wide circulation among our Woman's Temperance Unions

Miss Mary Bede Smith, state reporter of Connecticut for the Union Signal

Mrs. Mary Ingram Stille, to whose efforts the success of the first Woman's Christian Temperance work in Pennsylvania was largely due; Mrs. Lydia H. Tilton

Mrs. Harriett G. Walker, one of the first to take up the work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and to whom Minneapolis is indebted for the introduction of police matronship

Mrs. Mary Williams Chawner Woodey, who was for years president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in North Carolina, and who made notable addresses in several state conventions.

Temperance Leaders Kendrick ~ Woodward

Women of America

Source: The Part Taken by Women in American History, By Mrs. John A. Logan, Published by The Perry-Nalle Publishing Company, Wilmington, Delaware, 1912.

 

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